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This middleware is added to the stack when `config.force_ssl = true`, and is passed the options set in `config.ssl_options`. It does three jobs to enforce secure HTTP requests:

1. TLS redirect: Permanently redirects http:// requests to https://
   with the same URL host, path, etc. Enabled by default. Set `config.ssl_options`
   to modify the destination URL
   (e.g. `redirect: { host: "secure.widgets.com", port: 8080 }`), or set
   `redirect: false` to disable this feature.

2. Secure cookies: Sets the `secure` flag on cookies to tell browsers they
   mustn't be sent along with http:// requests. Enabled by default. Set
   `config.ssl_options` with `secure_cookies: false` to disable this feature.

3. HTTP Strict Transport Security (HSTS): Tells the browser to remember
   this site as TLS-only and automatically redirect non-TLS requests.
   Enabled by default. Configure `config.ssl_options` with `hsts: false` to disable.

Set `config.ssl_options` with `hsts: { … }` to configure HSTS:

* `expires`: How long, in seconds, these settings will stick. The minimum
  required to qualify for browser preload lists is `18.weeks`. Defaults to
  `180.days` (recommended).
* `subdomains`: Set to `true` to tell the browser to apply these settings
  to all subdomains. This protects your cookies from interception by a
  vulnerable site on a subdomain. Defaults to `true`.
* `preload`: Advertise that this site may be included in browsers'
  preloaded HSTS lists. HSTS protects your site on every visit *except the
  first visit* since it hasn't seen your HSTS header yet. To close this
  gap, browser vendors include a baked-in list of HSTS-enabled sites.
  Go to https://hstspreload.appspot.com to submit your site for inclusion.
  Defaults to `false`.

To turn off HSTS, omitting the header is not enough. Browsers will remember the original HSTS directive until it expires. Instead, use the header to tell browsers to expire HSTS immediately. Setting `hsts: false` is a shortcut for `hsts: { expires: 0 }`.

Requests can opt-out of redirection with `exclude`:

config.ssl_options = { redirect: { exclude: -> request { request.path =~ /healthcheck/ } } }
Methods
C
D
N
Constants
HSTS_EXPIRES_IN = 15552000
 

Default to 180 days, the low end for www.ssllabs.com/ssltest/ and greater than the 18-week requirement for browser preload lists.

Class Public methods
default_hsts_options()
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/middleware/ssl.rb, line 47
def self.default_hsts_options
  { expires: HSTS_EXPIRES_IN, subdomains: true, preload: false }
end
new(app, redirect: {}, hsts: {}, secure_cookies: true)
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/middleware/ssl.rb, line 51
def initialize(app, redirect: {}, hsts: {}, secure_cookies: true)
  @app = app

  @redirect = redirect

  @exclude = @redirect && @redirect[:exclude] || proc { !@redirect }
  @secure_cookies = secure_cookies

  @hsts_header = build_hsts_header(normalize_hsts_options(hsts))
end
Instance Public methods
call(env)
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/middleware/ssl.rb, line 62
def call(env)
  request = Request.new env

  if request.ssl?
    @app.call(env).tap do |status, headers, body|
      set_hsts_header! headers
      flag_cookies_as_secure! headers if @secure_cookies
    end
  else
    return redirect_to_https request unless @exclude.call(request)
    @app.call(env)
  end
end