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WhereChain objects act as placeholder for queries in which where does not have any parameter. In this case, where must be chained with not to return a new relation.

Methods
N
Class Public methods
new(scope)
# File activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/query_methods.rb, line 14
def initialize(scope)
  @scope = scope
end
Instance Public methods
not(opts, *rest)

Returns a new relation expressing WHERE + NOT condition according to the conditions in the arguments.

not accepts conditions as a string, array, or hash. See where for more details on each format.

User.where.not("name = 'Jon'")
# SELECT * FROM users WHERE NOT (name = 'Jon')

User.where.not(["name = ?", "Jon"])
# SELECT * FROM users WHERE NOT (name = 'Jon')

User.where.not(name: "Jon")
# SELECT * FROM users WHERE name != 'Jon'

User.where.not(name: nil)
# SELECT * FROM users WHERE name IS NOT NULL

User.where.not(name: %w(Ko1 Nobu))
# SELECT * FROM users WHERE name NOT IN ('Ko1', 'Nobu')

User.where.not(name: "Jon", role: "admin")
# SELECT * FROM users WHERE name != 'Jon' AND role != 'admin'
# File activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/query_methods.rb, line 41
def not(opts, *rest)
  where_value = @scope.send(:build_where, opts, rest).map do |rel|
    case rel
    when NilClass
      raise ArgumentError, 'Invalid argument for .where.not(), got nil.'
    when Arel::Nodes::In
      Arel::Nodes::NotIn.new(rel.left, rel.right)
    when Arel::Nodes::Equality
      Arel::Nodes::NotEqual.new(rel.left, rel.right)
    when String
      Arel::Nodes::Not.new(Arel::Nodes::SqlLiteral.new(rel))
    else
      Arel::Nodes::Not.new(rel)
    end
  end

  @scope.references!(PredicateBuilder.references(opts)) if Hash === opts
  @scope.where_values += where_value
  @scope
end