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Class Public methods
new()
# File activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/abstract/database_statements.rb, line 6
def initialize
  super
  reset_transaction
end
Instance Public methods
add_transaction_record(record)

Register a record with the current transaction so that its after_commit and after_rollback callbacks can be called.

# File activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/abstract/database_statements.rb, line 281
def add_transaction_record(record)
  current_transaction.add_record(record)
end
arel_from_relation(relation)
# File activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/abstract/database_statements.rb, line 492
def arel_from_relation(relation)
  if relation.is_a?(Relation)
    relation.arel
  else
    relation
  end
end
begin_db_transaction()

Begins the transaction (and turns off auto-committing).

# File activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/abstract/database_statements.rb, line 290
def begin_db_transaction()    end
begin_isolated_db_transaction(isolation)

Begins the transaction with the isolation level set. Raises an error by default; adapters that support setting the isolation level should implement this method.

# File activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/abstract/database_statements.rb, line 304
def begin_isolated_db_transaction(isolation)
  raise ActiveRecord::TransactionIsolationError, "adapter does not support setting transaction isolation"
end
build_fixture_sql(fixtures, table_name)
# File activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/abstract/database_statements.rb, line 428
def build_fixture_sql(fixtures, table_name)
  columns = schema_cache.columns_hash(table_name)

  values = fixtures.map do |fixture|
    fixture = fixture.stringify_keys

    unknown_columns = fixture.keys - columns.keys
    if unknown_columns.any?
      raise Fixture::FixtureError, %(table "#{table_name}" has no columns named #{unknown_columns.map(&:inspect).join(', ')}.)
    end

    columns.map do |name, column|
      if fixture.key?(name)
        type = lookup_cast_type_from_column(column)
        bind = Relation::QueryAttribute.new(name, fixture[name], type)
        with_yaml_fallback(bind.value_for_database)
      else
        default_insert_value(column)
      end
    end
  end

  table = Arel::Table.new(table_name)
  manager = Arel::InsertManager.new
  manager.into(table)
  columns.each_key { |column| manager.columns << table[column] }
  manager.values = manager.create_values_list(values)

  manager.to_sql
end
combine_multi_statements(total_sql)
# File activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/abstract/database_statements.rb, line 459
def combine_multi_statements(total_sql)
  total_sql.join(";\n")
end
commit_db_transaction()

Commits the transaction (and turns on auto-committing).

# File activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/abstract/database_statements.rb, line 309
def commit_db_transaction()   end
create(arel, name = nil, pk = nil, id_value = nil, sequence_name = nil, binds = [])
Alias for: insert
default_insert_value(column)
# File activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/abstract/database_statements.rb, line 424
def default_insert_value(column)
  Arel.sql("DEFAULT")
end
default_sequence_name(table, column)
# File activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/abstract/database_statements.rb, line 323
def default_sequence_name(table, column)
  nil
end
delete(arel, name = nil, binds = [])

Executes the delete statement and returns the number of rows affected.

# File activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/abstract/database_statements.rb, line 166
def delete(arel, name = nil, binds = [])
  sql, binds = to_sql_and_binds(arel, binds)
  exec_delete(sql, name, binds)
end
empty_insert_statement_value(primary_key = nil)
# File activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/abstract/database_statements.rb, line 395
def empty_insert_statement_value(primary_key = nil)
  "DEFAULT VALUES"
end
exec_delete(sql, name = nil, binds = [])

Executes delete sql statement in the context of this connection using binds as the bind substitutes. name is logged along with the executed sql statement.

# File activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/abstract/database_statements.rb, line 128
def exec_delete(sql, name = nil, binds = [])
  exec_query(sql, name, binds)
end
exec_insert(sql, name = nil, binds = [], pk = nil, sequence_name = nil)

Executes insert sql statement in the context of this connection using binds as the bind substitutes. name is logged along with the executed sql statement.

# File activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/abstract/database_statements.rb, line 120
def exec_insert(sql, name = nil, binds = [], pk = nil, sequence_name = nil)
  sql, binds = sql_for_insert(sql, pk, nil, sequence_name, binds)
  exec_query(sql, name, binds)
end
exec_query(sql, name = "SQL", binds = [], prepare: false)

Executes sql statement in the context of this connection using binds as the bind substitutes. name is logged along with the executed sql statement.

# File activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/abstract/database_statements.rb, line 113
def exec_query(sql, name = "SQL", binds = [], prepare: false)
  raise NotImplementedError
end
exec_update(sql, name = nil, binds = [])

Executes update sql statement in the context of this connection using binds as the bind substitutes. name is logged along with the executed sql statement.

# File activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/abstract/database_statements.rb, line 140
def exec_update(sql, name = nil, binds = [])
  exec_query(sql, name, binds)
end
execute(sql, name = nil)

Executes the SQL statement in the context of this connection and returns the raw result from the connection adapter. Note: depending on your database connector, the result returned by this method may be manually memory managed. Consider using the #exec_query wrapper instead.

# File activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/abstract/database_statements.rb, line 106
def execute(sql, name = nil)
  raise NotImplementedError
end
insert(arel, name = nil, pk = nil, id_value = nil, sequence_name = nil, binds = [])

Executes an INSERT query and returns the new record's ID

id_value will be returned unless the value is nil, in which case the database will attempt to calculate the last inserted id and return that value.

If the next id was calculated in advance (as in Oracle), it should be passed in as id_value.

Also aliased as: create
# File activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/abstract/database_statements.rb, line 152
def insert(arel, name = nil, pk = nil, id_value = nil, sequence_name = nil, binds = [])
  sql, binds = to_sql_and_binds(arel, binds)
  value = exec_insert(sql, name, binds, pk, sequence_name)
  id_value || last_inserted_id(value)
end
insert_fixture(fixture, table_name)

Inserts the given fixture into the table. Overridden in adapters that require something beyond a simple insert (eg. Oracle). Most of adapters should implement `insert_fixtures` that leverages bulk SQL insert. We keep this method to provide fallback for databases like sqlite that do not support bulk inserts.

# File activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/abstract/database_statements.rb, line 337
def insert_fixture(fixture, table_name)
  fixture = fixture.stringify_keys

  columns = schema_cache.columns_hash(table_name)
  binds = fixture.map do |name, value|
    if column = columns[name]
      type = lookup_cast_type_from_column(column)
      Relation::QueryAttribute.new(name, value, type)
    else
      raise Fixture::FixtureError, %(table "#{table_name}" has no column named #{name.inspect}.)
    end
  end

  table = Arel::Table.new(table_name)

  values = binds.map do |bind|
    value = with_yaml_fallback(bind.value_for_database)
    [table[bind.name], value]
  end

  manager = Arel::InsertManager.new
  manager.into(table)
  manager.insert(values)
  execute manager.to_sql, "Fixture Insert"
end
insert_fixtures(fixtures, table_name)

Inserts a set of fixtures into the table. Overridden in adapters that require something beyond a simple insert (eg. Oracle).

# File activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/abstract/database_statements.rb, line 365
      def insert_fixtures(fixtures, table_name)
        ActiveSupport::Deprecation.warn(<<-MSG.squish)
          `insert_fixtures` is deprecated and will be removed in the next version of Rails.
          Consider using `insert_fixtures_set` for performance improvement.
        MSG
        return if fixtures.empty?

        execute(build_fixture_sql(fixtures, table_name), "Fixtures Insert")
      end

      def insert_fixtures_set(fixture_set, tables_to_delete = [])
        fixture_inserts = fixture_set.map do |table_name, fixtures|
          next if fixtures.empty?

          build_fixture_sql(fixtures, table_name)
        end.compact

        table_deletes = tables_to_delete.map { |table| +"DELETE FROM #{quote_table_name table}" }
        total_sql = Array.wrap(combine_multi_statements(table_deletes + fixture_inserts))

        disable_referential_integrity do
          transaction(requires_new: true) do
            total_sql.each do |sql|
              execute sql, "Fixtures Load"
              yield if block_given?
            end
          end
        end
      end

      def empty_insert_statement_value(primary_key = nil)
        "DEFAULT VALUES"
      end

      # Sanitizes the given LIMIT parameter in order to prevent SQL injection.
      #
      # The +limit+ may be anything that can evaluate to a string via #to_s. It
      # should look like an integer, or an Arel SQL literal.
      #
      # Returns Integer and Arel::Nodes::SqlLiteral limits as is.
      def sanitize_limit(limit)
        if limit.is_a?(Integer) || limit.is_a?(Arel::Nodes::SqlLiteral)
          limit
        else
          Integer(limit)
        end
      end

      # The default strategy for an UPDATE with joins is to use a subquery. This doesn't work
      # on MySQL (even when aliasing the tables), but MySQL allows using JOIN directly in
      # an UPDATE statement, so in the MySQL adapters we redefine this to do that.
      def join_to_update(update, select, key) # :nodoc:
        subselect = subquery_for(key, select)

        update.where key.in(subselect)
      end
      alias join_to_delete join_to_update

      private
        def default_insert_value(column)
          Arel.sql("DEFAULT")
        end

        def build_fixture_sql(fixtures, table_name)
          columns = schema_cache.columns_hash(table_name)

          values = fixtures.map do |fixture|
            fixture = fixture.stringify_keys

            unknown_columns = fixture.keys - columns.keys
            if unknown_columns.any?
              raise Fixture::FixtureError, %(table "#{table_name}" has no columns named #{unknown_columns.map(&:inspect).join(', ')}.)
            end

            columns.map do |name, column|
              if fixture.key?(name)
                type = lookup_cast_type_from_column(column)
                bind = Relation::QueryAttribute.new(name, fixture[name], type)
                with_yaml_fallback(bind.value_for_database)
              else
                default_insert_value(column)
              end
            end
          end

          table = Arel::Table.new(table_name)
          manager = Arel::InsertManager.new
          manager.into(table)
          columns.each_key { |column| manager.columns << table[column] }
          manager.values = manager.create_values_list(values)

          manager.to_sql
        end

        def combine_multi_statements(total_sql)
          total_sql.join(";\n")
        end

        # Returns a subquery for the given key using the join information.
        def subquery_for(key, select)
          subselect = select.clone
          subselect.projections = [key]
          subselect
        end

        # Returns an ActiveRecord::Result instance.
        def select(sql, name = nil, binds = [])
          exec_query(sql, name, binds, prepare: false)
        end

        def select_prepared(sql, name = nil, binds = [])
          exec_query(sql, name, binds, prepare: true)
        end

        def sql_for_insert(sql, pk, id_value, sequence_name, binds)
          [sql, binds]
        end

        def last_inserted_id(result)
          single_value_from_rows(result.rows)
        end

        def single_value_from_rows(rows)
          row = rows.first
          row && row.first
        end

        def arel_from_relation(relation)
          if relation.is_a?(Relation)
            relation.arel
          else
            relation
          end
        end

        # Fixture value is quoted by Arel, however scalar values
        # are not quotable. In this case we want to convert
        # the column value to YAML.
        def with_yaml_fallback(value)
          if value.is_a?(Hash) || value.is_a?(Array)
            YAML.dump(value)
          else
            value
          end
        end

        class PartialQueryCollector
          def initialize
            @parts = []
            @binds = []
          end

          def <<(str)
            @parts << str
            self
          end

          def add_bind(obj)
            @binds << obj
            @parts << Arel::Nodes::BindParam.new(1)
            self
          end

          def value
            [@parts, @binds]
          end
        end
    end
insert_fixtures_set(fixture_set, tables_to_delete = [])
# File activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/abstract/database_statements.rb, line 375
def insert_fixtures_set(fixture_set, tables_to_delete = [])
  fixture_inserts = fixture_set.map do |table_name, fixtures|
    next if fixtures.empty?

    build_fixture_sql(fixtures, table_name)
  end.compact

  table_deletes = tables_to_delete.map { |table| +"DELETE FROM #{quote_table_name table}" }
  total_sql = Array.wrap(combine_multi_statements(table_deletes + fixture_inserts))

  disable_referential_integrity do
    transaction(requires_new: true) do
      total_sql.each do |sql|
        execute sql, "Fixtures Load"
        yield if block_given?
      end
    end
  end
end
last_inserted_id(result)
# File activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/abstract/database_statements.rb, line 483
def last_inserted_id(result)
  single_value_from_rows(result.rows)
end
reset_sequence!(table, column, sequence = nil)

Set the sequence to the max value of the table's column.

# File activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/abstract/database_statements.rb, line 328
def reset_sequence!(table, column, sequence = nil)
  # Do nothing by default. Implement for PostgreSQL, Oracle, ...
end
rollback_db_transaction()

Rolls back the transaction (and turns on auto-committing). Must be done if the transaction block raises an exception or returns false.

# File activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/abstract/database_statements.rb, line 313
def rollback_db_transaction
  exec_rollback_db_transaction
end
rollback_to_savepoint(name = nil)
# File activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/abstract/database_statements.rb, line 319
def rollback_to_savepoint(name = nil)
  exec_rollback_to_savepoint(name)
end
sanitize_limit(limit)

Sanitizes the given LIMIT parameter in order to prevent SQL injection.

The limit may be anything that can evaluate to a string via to_s. It should look like an integer, or an Arel SQL literal.

Returns Integer and Arel::Nodes::SqlLiteral limits as is.

# File activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/abstract/database_statements.rb, line 405
def sanitize_limit(limit)
  if limit.is_a?(Integer) || limit.is_a?(Arel::Nodes::SqlLiteral)
    limit
  else
    Integer(limit)
  end
end
select(sql, name = nil, binds = [])

Returns an ActiveRecord::Result instance.

# File activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/abstract/database_statements.rb, line 471
def select(sql, name = nil, binds = [])
  exec_query(sql, name, binds, prepare: false)
end
select_all(arel, name = nil, binds = [], preparable: nil)

Returns an ActiveRecord::Result instance.

# File activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/abstract/database_statements.rb, line 46
def select_all(arel, name = nil, binds = [], preparable: nil)
  arel = arel_from_relation(arel)
  sql, binds = to_sql_and_binds(arel, binds)

  if !prepared_statements || (arel.is_a?(String) && preparable.nil?)
    preparable = false
  elsif binds.length > bind_params_length
    sql, binds = unprepared_statement { to_sql_and_binds(arel) }
    preparable = false
  else
    preparable = visitor.preparable
  end

  if prepared_statements && preparable
    select_prepared(sql, name, binds)
  else
    select(sql, name, binds)
  end
end
select_one(arel, name = nil, binds = [])

Returns a record hash with the column names as keys and column values as values.

# File activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/abstract/database_statements.rb, line 68
def select_one(arel, name = nil, binds = [])
  select_all(arel, name, binds).first
end
select_prepared(sql, name = nil, binds = [])
# File activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/abstract/database_statements.rb, line 475
def select_prepared(sql, name = nil, binds = [])
  exec_query(sql, name, binds, prepare: true)
end
select_rows(arel, name = nil, binds = [])

Returns an array of arrays containing the field values. Order is the same as that returned by columns.

# File activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/abstract/database_statements.rb, line 85
def select_rows(arel, name = nil, binds = [])
  select_all(arel, name, binds).rows
end
select_value(arel, name = nil, binds = [])

Returns a single value from a record

# File activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/abstract/database_statements.rb, line 73
def select_value(arel, name = nil, binds = [])
  single_value_from_rows(select_rows(arel, name, binds))
end
select_values(arel, name = nil, binds = [])

Returns an array of the values of the first column in a select:

select_values("SELECT id FROM companies LIMIT 3") => [1,2,3]
# File activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/abstract/database_statements.rb, line 79
def select_values(arel, name = nil, binds = [])
  select_rows(arel, name, binds).map(&:first)
end
single_value_from_rows(rows)
# File activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/abstract/database_statements.rb, line 487
def single_value_from_rows(rows)
  row = rows.first
  row && row.first
end
sql_for_insert(sql, pk, id_value, sequence_name, binds)
# File activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/abstract/database_statements.rb, line 479
def sql_for_insert(sql, pk, id_value, sequence_name, binds)
  [sql, binds]
end
subquery_for(key, select)

Returns a subquery for the given key using the join information.

# File activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/abstract/database_statements.rb, line 464
def subquery_for(key, select)
  subselect = select.clone
  subselect.projections = [key]
  subselect
end
to_sql(arel_or_sql_string, binds = [])

Converts an arel AST to SQL

# File activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/abstract/database_statements.rb, line 12
def to_sql(arel_or_sql_string, binds = [])
  sql, _ = to_sql_and_binds(arel_or_sql_string, binds)
  sql
end
transaction(requires_new: nil, isolation: nil, joinable: true)

Runs the given block in a database transaction, and returns the result of the block.

Nested transactions support

Most databases don't support true nested transactions. At the time of writing, the only database that supports true nested transactions that we're aware of, is MS-SQL.

In order to get around this problem, transaction will emulate the effect of nested transactions, by using savepoints: dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.7/en/savepoint.html Savepoints are supported by MySQL and PostgreSQL. SQLite3 version >= '3.6.8' supports savepoints.

It is safe to call this method if a database transaction is already open, i.e. if transaction is called within another transaction block. In case of a nested call, transaction will behave as follows:

  • The block will be run without doing anything. All database statements that happen within the block are effectively appended to the already open database transaction.

  • However, if :requires_new is set, the block will be wrapped in a database savepoint acting as a sub-transaction.

Caveats

MySQL doesn't support DDL transactions. If you perform a DDL operation, then any created savepoints will be automatically released. For example, if you've created a savepoint, then you execute a CREATE TABLE statement, then the savepoint that was created will be automatically released.

This means that, on MySQL, you shouldn't execute DDL operations inside a transaction call that you know might create a savepoint. Otherwise, transaction will raise exceptions when it tries to release the already-automatically-released savepoints:

Model.connection.transaction do  # BEGIN
  Model.connection.transaction(requires_new: true) do  # CREATE SAVEPOINT active_record_1
    Model.connection.create_table(...)
    # active_record_1 now automatically released
  end  # RELEASE SAVEPOINT active_record_1  <--- BOOM! database error!
end

Transaction isolation

If your database supports setting the isolation level for a transaction, you can set it like so:

Post.transaction(isolation: :serializable) do
  # ...
end

Valid isolation levels are:

  • :read_uncommitted

  • :read_committed

  • :repeatable_read

  • :serializable

You should consult the documentation for your database to understand the semantics of these different levels:

An ActiveRecord::TransactionIsolationError will be raised if:

  • The adapter does not support setting the isolation level

  • You are joining an existing open transaction

  • You are creating a nested (savepoint) transaction

The mysql2 and postgresql adapters support setting the transaction isolation level.

# File activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/abstract/database_statements.rb, line 252
def transaction(requires_new: nil, isolation: nil, joinable: true)
  if !requires_new && current_transaction.joinable?
    if isolation
      raise ActiveRecord::TransactionIsolationError, "cannot set isolation when joining a transaction"
    end
    yield
  else
    transaction_manager.within_new_transaction(isolation: isolation, joinable: joinable) { yield }
  end
rescue ActiveRecord::Rollback
  # rollbacks are silently swallowed
end
transaction_isolation_levels()
# File activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/abstract/database_statements.rb, line 292
def transaction_isolation_levels
  {
    read_uncommitted: "READ UNCOMMITTED",
    read_committed:   "READ COMMITTED",
    repeatable_read:  "REPEATABLE READ",
    serializable:     "SERIALIZABLE"
  }
end
transaction_open?()
# File activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/abstract/database_statements.rb, line 271
def transaction_open?
  current_transaction.open?
end
transaction_state()
# File activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/abstract/database_statements.rb, line 285
def transaction_state
  current_transaction.state
end
truncate(table_name, name = nil)

Executes the truncate statement.

# File activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/abstract/database_statements.rb, line 133
def truncate(table_name, name = nil)
  raise NotImplementedError
end
update(arel, name = nil, binds = [])

Executes the update statement and returns the number of rows affected.

# File activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/abstract/database_statements.rb, line 160
def update(arel, name = nil, binds = [])
  sql, binds = to_sql_and_binds(arel, binds)
  exec_update(sql, name, binds)
end
with_yaml_fallback(value)

Fixture value is quoted by Arel, however scalar values are not quotable. In this case we want to convert the column value to YAML.

# File activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/abstract/database_statements.rb, line 503
def with_yaml_fallback(value)
  if value.is_a?(Hash) || value.is_a?(Array)
    YAML.dump(value)
  else
    value
  end
end