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Included Modules
Instance Public methods
expires_in(seconds, options = {})

Sets an HTTP 1.1 Cache-Control header. Defaults to issuing a private instruction, so that intermediate caches must not cache the response.

expires_in 20.minutes
expires_in 3.hours, public: true
expires_in 3.hours, public: true, must_revalidate: true

This method will overwrite an existing Cache-Control header. See www.w3.org/Protocols/rfc2616/rfc2616-sec14.html for more possibilities.

The method will also ensure an HTTP Date header for client compatibility.

# File actionpack/lib/action_controller/metal/conditional_get.rb, line 233
def expires_in(seconds, options = {})
  response.cache_control.merge!(
    max_age: seconds,
    public: options.delete(:public),
    must_revalidate: options.delete(:must_revalidate)
  )
  options.delete(:private)

  response.cache_control[:extras] = options.map { |k, v| "#{k}=#{v}" }
  response.date = Time.now unless response.date?
end
expires_now()

Sets an HTTP 1.1 Cache-Control header of no-cache. This means the resource will be marked as stale, so clients must always revalidate. Intermediate/browser caches may still store the asset.

# File actionpack/lib/action_controller/metal/conditional_get.rb, line 248
def expires_now
  response.cache_control.replace(no_cache: true)
end
fresh_when(object = nil, etag: nil, weak_etag: nil, strong_etag: nil, last_modified: nil, public: false, template: nil)

Sets the etag, last_modified, or both on the response and renders a 304 Not Modified response if the request is already fresh.

Parameters:

  • :etag Sets a “weak” ETag validator on the response. See the :weak_etag option.

  • :weak_etag Sets a “weak” ETag validator on the response. Requests that set If-None-Match header may return a 304 Not Modified response if it matches the ETag exactly. A weak ETag indicates semantic equivalence, not byte-for-byte equality, so they're good for caching HTML pages in browser caches. They can't be used for responses that must be byte-identical, like serving Range requests within a PDF file.

  • :strong_etag Sets a “strong” ETag validator on the response. Requests that set If-None-Match header may return a 304 Not Modified response if it matches the ETag exactly. A strong ETag implies exact equality: the response must match byte for byte. This is necessary for doing Range requests within a large video or PDF file, for example, or for compatibility with some CDNs that don't support weak ETags.

  • :last_modified Sets a “weak” last-update validator on the response. Subsequent requests that set If-Modified-Since may return a 304 Not Modified response if last_modified <= If-Modified-Since.

  • :public By default the Cache-Control header is private, set this to true if you want your application to be cacheable by other devices (proxy caches).

  • :template By default, the template digest for the current controller/action is included in ETags. If the action renders a different template, you can include its digest instead. If the action doesn't render a template at all, you can pass template: false to skip any attempt to check for a template digest.

Example:

def show
  @article = Article.find(params[:id])
  fresh_when(etag: @article, last_modified: @article.updated_at, public: true)
end

This will render the show template if the request isn't sending a matching ETag or If-Modified-Since header and just a 304 Not Modified response if there's a match.

You can also just pass a record. In this case last_modified will be set by calling updated_at and etag by passing the object itself.

def show
  @article = Article.find(params[:id])
  fresh_when(@article)
end

You can also pass an object that responds to maximum, such as a collection of active records. In this case last_modified will be set by calling maximum(:updated_at) on the collection (the timestamp of the most recently updated record) and the etag by passing the object itself.

def index
  @articles = Article.all
  fresh_when(@articles)
end

When passing a record or a collection, you can still set the public header:

def show
  @article = Article.find(params[:id])
  fresh_when(@article, public: true)
end

When rendering a different template than the default controller/action style, you can indicate which digest to include in the ETag:

before_action { fresh_when @article, template: 'widgets/show' }
# File actionpack/lib/action_controller/metal/conditional_get.rb, line 104
def fresh_when(object = nil, etag: nil, weak_etag: nil, strong_etag: nil, last_modified: nil, public: false, template: nil)
  weak_etag ||= etag || object unless strong_etag
  last_modified ||= object.try(:updated_at) || object.try(:maximum, :updated_at)

  if strong_etag
    response.strong_etag = combine_etags strong_etag,
      last_modified: last_modified, public: public, template: template
  elsif weak_etag || template
    response.weak_etag = combine_etags weak_etag,
      last_modified: last_modified, public: public, template: template
  end

  response.last_modified = last_modified if last_modified
  response.cache_control[:public] = true if public

  head :not_modified if request.fresh?(response)
end
http_cache_forever(public: false)

Cache or yield the block. The cache is supposed to never expire.

You can use this method when you have an HTTP response that never changes, and the browser and proxies should cache it indefinitely.

  • public: By default, HTTP responses are private, cached only on the user's web browser. To allow proxies to cache the response, set true to indicate that they can serve the cached response to all users.

# File actionpack/lib/action_controller/metal/conditional_get.rb, line 260
def http_cache_forever(public: false)
  expires_in 100.years, public: public

  yield if stale?(etag: request.fullpath,
                  last_modified: Time.new(2011, 1, 1).utc,
                  public: public)
end
stale?(object = nil, **freshness_kwargs)

Sets the etag and/or last_modified on the response and checks it against the client request. If the request doesn't match the options provided, the request is considered stale and should be generated from scratch. Otherwise, it's fresh and we don't need to generate anything and a reply of 304 Not Modified is sent.

Parameters:

  • :etag Sets a “weak” ETag validator on the response. See the :weak_etag option.

  • :weak_etag Sets a “weak” ETag validator on the response. Requests that set If-None-Match header may return a 304 Not Modified response if it matches the ETag exactly. A weak ETag indicates semantic equivalence, not byte-for-byte equality, so they're good for caching HTML pages in browser caches. They can't be used for responses that must be byte-identical, like serving Range requests within a PDF file.

  • :strong_etag Sets a “strong” ETag validator on the response. Requests that set If-None-Match header may return a 304 Not Modified response if it matches the ETag exactly. A strong ETag implies exact equality: the response must match byte for byte. This is necessary for doing Range requests within a large video or PDF file, for example, or for compatibility with some CDNs that don't support weak ETags.

  • :last_modified Sets a “weak” last-update validator on the response. Subsequent requests that set If-Modified-Since may return a 304 Not Modified response if last_modified <= If-Modified-Since.

  • :public By default the Cache-Control header is private, set this to true if you want your application to be cacheable by other devices (proxy caches).

  • :template By default, the template digest for the current controller/action is included in ETags. If the action renders a different template, you can include its digest instead. If the action doesn't render a template at all, you can pass template: false to skip any attempt to check for a template digest.

Example:

def show
  @article = Article.find(params[:id])

  if stale?(etag: @article, last_modified: @article.updated_at)
    @statistics = @article.really_expensive_call
    respond_to do |format|
      # all the supported formats
    end
  end
end

You can also just pass a record. In this case last_modified will be set by calling updated_at and etag by passing the object itself.

def show
  @article = Article.find(params[:id])

  if stale?(@article)
    @statistics = @article.really_expensive_call
    respond_to do |format|
      # all the supported formats
    end
  end
end

You can also pass an object that responds to maximum, such as a collection of active records. In this case last_modified will be set by calling +maximum(:updated_at)+ on the collection (the timestamp of the most recently updated record) and the etag by passing the object itself.

def index
  @articles = Article.all

  if stale?(@articles)
    @statistics = @articles.really_expensive_call
    respond_to do |format|
      # all the supported formats
    end
  end
end

When passing a record or a collection, you can still set the public header:

def show
  @article = Article.find(params[:id])

  if stale?(@article, public: true)
    @statistics = @article.really_expensive_call
    respond_to do |format|
      # all the supported formats
    end
  end
end

When rendering a different template than the default controller/action style, you can indicate which digest to include in the ETag:

def show
  super if stale? @article, template: 'widgets/show'
end
# File actionpack/lib/action_controller/metal/conditional_get.rb, line 217
def stale?(object = nil, **freshness_kwargs)
  fresh_when(object, **freshness_kwargs)
  !request.fresh?(response)
end