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Represents an HTTP response generated by a controller action. Use it to retrieve the current state of the response, or customize the response. It can either represent a real HTTP response (i.e. one that is meant to be sent back to the web browser) or a TestResponse (i.e. one that is generated from integration tests).

Response is mostly a Ruby on Rails framework implementation detail, and should never be used directly in controllers. Controllers should use the methods defined in ActionController::Base instead. For example, if you want to set the HTTP response's content MIME type, then use ActionControllerBase#headers instead of #headers.

Nevertheless, integration tests may want to inspect controller responses in more detail, and that's when Response can be useful for application developers. Integration test methods such as ActionDispatch::Integration::RequestHelpers#get and ActionDispatch::Integration::RequestHelpers#post return objects of type TestResponse (which are of course also of type Response).

For example, the following demo integration test prints the body of the controller response to the console:

class DemoControllerTest < ActionDispatch::IntegrationTest
  def test_print_root_path_to_console
    get('/')
    puts response.body
  end
end
Namespace
Methods
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Included Modules
Constants
CONTENT_TYPE = "Content-Type".freeze
 
SET_COOKIE = "Set-Cookie".freeze
 
LOCATION = "Location".freeze
 
NO_CONTENT_CODES = [100, 101, 102, 204, 205, 304]
 
ContentTypeHeader = Struct.new :mime_type, :charset
 
NullContentTypeHeader = ContentTypeHeader.new nil, nil
 
Attributes
[R] header

Get headers for this response.

[R] headers

Get headers for this response.

[RW] request

The request that the response is responding to.

[R] status

The HTTP status code.

[R] stream

The underlying body, as a streamable object.

Class Public methods
create(status = 200, header = {}, body = [], default_headers: self.default_headers)
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 134
def self.create(status = 200, header = {}, body = [], default_headers: self.default_headers)
  header = merge_default_headers(header, default_headers)
  new status, header, body
end
merge_default_headers(original, default)
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 139
def self.merge_default_headers(original, default)
  default.respond_to?(:merge) ? default.merge(original) : original
end
new(status = 200, header = {}, body = [])
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 146
def initialize(status = 200, header = {}, body = [])
  super()

  @header = Header.new(self, header)

  self.body, self.status = body, status

  @cv           = new_cond
  @committed    = false
  @sending      = false
  @sent         = false

  prepare_cache_control!

  yield self if block_given?
end
Instance Public methods
abort()
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 348
def abort
  if stream.respond_to?(:abort)
    stream.abort
  elsif stream.respond_to?(:close)
    # `stream.close` should really be reserved for a close from the
    # other direction, but we must fall back to it for
    # compatibility.
    stream.close
  end
end
await_commit()
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 168
def await_commit
  synchronize do
    @cv.wait_until { @committed }
  end
end
await_sent()
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 174
def await_sent
  synchronize { @cv.wait_until { @sent } }
end
body()

Returns the content of the response as a string. This contains the contents of any calls to render.

# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 282
def body
  @stream.body
end
body=(body)

Allows you to manually set or override the response body.

# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 291
def body=(body)
  if body.respond_to?(:to_path)
    @stream = body
  else
    synchronize do
      @stream = build_buffer self, munge_body_object(body)
    end
  end
end
body_parts()
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 335
def body_parts
  parts = []
  @stream.each { |x| parts << x }
  parts
end
charset()

The charset of the response. HTML wants to know the encoding of the content you're giving them, so we need to send that along.

# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 252
def charset
  header_info = parse_content_type
  header_info.charset || self.class.default_charset
end
charset=(charset)

Sets the HTTP character set. In case of nil parameter it sets the charset to utf-8.

response.charset = 'utf-16' # => 'utf-16'
response.charset = nil      # => 'utf-8'
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 240
def charset=(charset)
  header_info = parse_content_type
  if false == charset
    set_header CONTENT_TYPE, header_info.mime_type
  else
    content_type = header_info.mime_type
    set_content_type content_type, charset || self.class.default_charset
  end
end
close()
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 344
def close
  stream.close if stream.respond_to?(:close)
end
code()

Returns a string to ensure compatibility with Net::HTTPResponse.

# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 263
def code
  @status.to_s
end
commit!()
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 178
def commit!
  synchronize do
    before_committed
    @committed = true
    @cv.broadcast
  end
end
committed?()
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 202
def committed?; synchronize { @committed }; end
content_type()

Sets the HTTP response's content MIME type. For example, in the controller you could write this:

response.content_type = "text/plain"

If a character set has been defined for this response (see charset=) then the character set information will also be included in the content type information.

# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 225
def content_type
  parse_content_type.mime_type
end
content_type=(content_type)

Sets the HTTP content type.

# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 211
def content_type=(content_type)
  header_info = parse_content_type
  set_content_type content_type.to_s, header_info.charset || self.class.default_charset
end
cookies()

Returns the response cookies, converted to a Hash of (name => value) pairs

assert_equal 'AuthorOfNewPage', r.cookies['author']
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 372
def cookies
  cookies = {}
  if header = get_header(SET_COOKIE)
    header = header.split("\n") if header.respond_to?(:to_str)
    header.each do |cookie|
      if pair = cookie.split(';').first
        key, value = pair.split("=").map { |v| Rack::Utils.unescape(v) }
        cookies[key] = value
      end
    end
  end
  cookies
end
delete_header(key)
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 166
def delete_header(key); headers.delete key; end
get_header(key)
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 164
def get_header(key);    headers[key];       end
has_header?(key)
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 163
def has_header?(key);   headers.key? key;   end
message()

Returns the corresponding message for the current HTTP status code:

response.status = 200
response.message # => "OK"

response.status = 404
response.message # => "Not Found"
Also aliased as: status_message
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 275
def message
  Rack::Utils::HTTP_STATUS_CODES[@status]
end
prepare!()
Alias for: to_a
reset_body!()
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 331
def reset_body!
  @stream = build_buffer(self, [])
end
response_code()

The response code of the request.

# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 258
def response_code
  @status
end
send_file(path)

Send the file stored at path as the response body.

# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 326
def send_file(path)
  commit!
  @stream = FileBody.new(path)
end
sending!()
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 186
def sending!
  synchronize do
    before_sending
    @sending = true
    @cv.broadcast
  end
end
sending?()
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 201
def sending?;   synchronize { @sending };   end
sending_file=(v)
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 229
def sending_file=(v)
  if true == v
    self.charset = false
  end
end
sent!()
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 194
def sent!
  synchronize do
    @sent = true
    @cv.broadcast
  end
end
sent?()
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 203
def sent?;      synchronize { @sent };      end
set_header(key, v)
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 165
def set_header(key, v); headers[key] = v;   end
status=(status)

Sets the HTTP status code.

# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 206
def status=(status)
  @status = Rack::Utils.status_code(status)
end
status_message()
Alias for: message
to_a()

Turns the Response into a Rack-compatible array of the status, headers, and body. Allows explicit splatting:

status, headers, body = *response
Also aliased as: prepare!
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 363
def to_a
  commit!
  rack_response @status, @header.to_hash
end
write(string)
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 286
def write(string)
  @stream.write string
end