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Represents an HTTP response generated by a controller action. Use it to retrieve the current state of the response, or customize the response. It can either represent a real HTTP response (i.e. one that is meant to be sent back to the web browser) or a TestResponse (i.e. one that is generated from integration tests).

Response is mostly a Ruby on Rails framework implementation detail, and should never be used directly in controllers. Controllers should use the methods defined in ActionController::Base instead. For example, if you want to set the HTTP response's content MIME type, then use ActionControllerBase#headers instead of #headers.

Nevertheless, integration tests may want to inspect controller responses in more detail, and that's when Response can be useful for application developers. Integration test methods such as ActionDispatch::Integration::RequestHelpers#get and ActionDispatch::Integration::RequestHelpers#post return objects of type TestResponse (which are of course also of type Response).

For example, the following demo integration test prints the body of the controller response to the console:

class DemoControllerTest < ActionDispatch::IntegrationTest
  def test_print_root_path_to_console
    get('/')
    puts response.body
  end
end
Namespace
Methods
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H
M
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T
W
Included Modules
Constants
CONTENT_TYPE = "Content-Type".freeze
 
ContentTypeHeader = Struct.new :mime_type, :charset
 
LOCATION = "Location".freeze
 
NO_CONTENT_CODES = [100, 101, 102, 204, 205, 304]
 
NullContentTypeHeader = ContentTypeHeader.new nil, nil
 
SET_COOKIE = "Set-Cookie".freeze
 
Attributes
[R] header

Get headers for this response.

[R] headers

Get headers for this response.

[RW] request

The request that the response is responding to.

[R] status

The HTTP status code.

[R] stream

The underlying body, as a streamable object.

Class Public methods
create(status = 200, header = {}, body = [], default_headers: self.default_headers)
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 151
def self.create(status = 200, header = {}, body = [], default_headers: self.default_headers)
  header = merge_default_headers(header, default_headers)
  new status, header, body
end
merge_default_headers(original, default)
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 156
def self.merge_default_headers(original, default)
  default.respond_to?(:merge) ? default.merge(original) : original
end
new(status = 200, header = {}, body = [])
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 163
def initialize(status = 200, header = {}, body = [])
  super()

  @header = Header.new(self, header)

  self.body, self.status = body, status

  @cv           = new_cond
  @committed    = false
  @sending      = false
  @sent         = false

  prepare_cache_control!

  yield self if block_given?
end
Instance Public methods
abort()
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 368
def abort
  if stream.respond_to?(:abort)
    stream.abort
  elsif stream.respond_to?(:close)
    # `stream.close` should really be reserved for a close from the
    # other direction, but we must fall back to it for
    # compatibility.
    stream.close
  end
end
assign_default_content_type_and_charset!()
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 461
  def assign_default_content_type_and_charset!
    return if content_type

    ct = parsed_content_type_header
    set_content_type(ct.mime_type || Mime[:html].to_s,
                     ct.charset || self.class.default_charset)
  end

  class RackBody
    def initialize(response)
      @response = response
    end

    def each(*args, &block)
      @response.each(*args, &block)
    end

    def close
      # Rack "close" maps to Response#abort, and *not* Response#close
      # (which is used when the controller's finished writing)
      @response.abort
    end

    def body
      @response.body
    end

    def respond_to?(method, include_private = false)
      if method.to_s == "to_path"
        @response.stream.respond_to?(method)
      else
        super
      end
    end

    def to_path
      @response.stream.to_path
    end

    def to_ary
      nil
    end
  end

  def handle_no_content!
    if NO_CONTENT_CODES.include?(@status)
      @header.delete CONTENT_TYPE
      @header.delete "Content-Length"
    end
  end

  def rack_response(status, header)
    if NO_CONTENT_CODES.include?(status)
      [status, header, []]
    else
      [status, header, RackBody.new(self)]
    end
  end
end
await_commit()
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 185
def await_commit
  synchronize do
    @cv.wait_until { @committed }
  end
end
await_sent()
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 191
def await_sent
  synchronize { @cv.wait_until { @sent } }
end
before_committed()
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 433
    def before_committed
      return if committed?
      assign_default_content_type_and_charset!
      merge_and_normalize_cache_control!(@cache_control)
      handle_conditional_get!
      handle_no_content!
    end

    def before_sending
      # Normally we've already committed by now, but it's possible
      # (e.g., if the controller action tries to read back its own
      # response) to get here before that. In that case, we must force
      # an "early" commit: we're about to freeze the headers, so this is
      # our last chance.
      commit! unless committed?

      headers.freeze
      request.commit_cookie_jar! unless committed?
    end

    def build_buffer(response, body)
      Buffer.new response, body
    end

    def munge_body_object(body)
      body.respond_to?(:each) ? body : [body]
    end

    def assign_default_content_type_and_charset!
      return if content_type

      ct = parsed_content_type_header
      set_content_type(ct.mime_type || Mime[:html].to_s,
                       ct.charset || self.class.default_charset)
    end

    class RackBody
      def initialize(response)
        @response = response
      end

      def each(*args, &block)
        @response.each(*args, &block)
      end

      def close
        # Rack "close" maps to Response#abort, and *not* Response#close
        # (which is used when the controller's finished writing)
        @response.abort
      end

      def body
        @response.body
      end

      def respond_to?(method, include_private = false)
        if method.to_s == "to_path"
          @response.stream.respond_to?(method)
        else
          super
        end
      end

      def to_path
        @response.stream.to_path
      end

      def to_ary
        nil
      end
    end

    def handle_no_content!
      if NO_CONTENT_CODES.include?(@status)
        @header.delete CONTENT_TYPE
        @header.delete "Content-Length"
      end
    end

    def rack_response(status, header)
      if NO_CONTENT_CODES.include?(status)
        [status, header, []]
      else
        [status, header, RackBody.new(self)]
      end
    end
  end
end
before_sending()
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 441
def before_sending
  # Normally we've already committed by now, but it's possible
  # (e.g., if the controller action tries to read back its own
  # response) to get here before that. In that case, we must force
  # an "early" commit: we're about to freeze the headers, so this is
  # our last chance.
  commit! unless committed?

  headers.freeze
  request.commit_cookie_jar! unless committed?
end
body()

Returns the content of the response as a string. This contains the contents of any calls to render.

# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 302
def body
  @stream.body
end
body=(body)

Allows you to manually set or override the response body.

# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 311
def body=(body)
  if body.respond_to?(:to_path)
    @stream = body
  else
    synchronize do
      @stream = build_buffer self, munge_body_object(body)
    end
  end
end
body_parts()
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 355
def body_parts
  parts = []
  @stream.each { |x| parts << x }
  parts
end
build_buffer(response, body)
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 453
def build_buffer(response, body)
  Buffer.new response, body
end
charset()

The charset of the response. HTML wants to know the encoding of the content you're giving them, so we need to send that along.

# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 272
def charset
  header_info = parsed_content_type_header
  header_info.charset || self.class.default_charset
end
charset=(charset)

Sets the HTTP character set. In case of nil parameter it sets the charset to default_charset.

response.charset = 'utf-16' # => 'utf-16'
response.charset = nil      # => 'utf-8'
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 261
def charset=(charset)
  content_type = parsed_content_type_header.mime_type
  if false == charset
    set_content_type content_type, nil
  else
    set_content_type content_type, charset || self.class.default_charset
  end
end
close()
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 364
def close
  stream.close if stream.respond_to?(:close)
end
code()

Returns a string to ensure compatibility with Net::HTTPResponse.

# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 283
def code
  @status.to_s
end
commit!()
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 195
def commit!
  synchronize do
    before_committed
    @committed = true
    @cv.broadcast
  end
end
committed?()
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 219
def committed?; synchronize { @committed }; end
content_type()

Sets the HTTP response's content MIME type. For example, in the controller you could write this:

response.content_type = "text/plain"

If a character set has been defined for this response (see charset=) then the character set information will also be included in the content type information.

# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 246
def content_type
  parsed_content_type_header.mime_type
end
content_type=(content_type)

Sets the HTTP content type.

# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 228
  def content_type=(content_type)
    return unless content_type
    new_header_info = parse_content_type(content_type.to_s)
    prev_header_info = parsed_content_type_header
    charset = new_header_info.charset || prev_header_info.charset
    charset ||= self.class.default_charset unless prev_header_info.mime_type
    set_content_type new_header_info.mime_type, charset
  end

  # Sets the HTTP response's content MIME type. For example, in the controller
  # you could write this:
  #
  #  response.content_type = "text/plain"
  #
  # If a character set has been defined for this response (see charset=) then
  # the character set information will also be included in the content type
  # information.

  def content_type
    parsed_content_type_header.mime_type
  end

  def sending_file=(v)
    if true == v
      self.charset = false
    end
  end

  # Sets the HTTP character set. In case of +nil+ parameter
  # it sets the charset to +default_charset+.
  #
  #   response.charset = 'utf-16' # => 'utf-16'
  #   response.charset = nil      # => 'utf-8'
  def charset=(charset)
    content_type = parsed_content_type_header.mime_type
    if false == charset
      set_content_type content_type, nil
    else
      set_content_type content_type, charset || self.class.default_charset
    end
  end

  # The charset of the response. HTML wants to know the encoding of the
  # content you're giving them, so we need to send that along.
  def charset
    header_info = parsed_content_type_header
    header_info.charset || self.class.default_charset
  end

  # The response code of the request.
  def response_code
    @status
  end

  # Returns a string to ensure compatibility with <tt>Net::HTTPResponse</tt>.
  def code
    @status.to_s
  end

  # Returns the corresponding message for the current HTTP status code:
  #
  #   response.status = 200
  #   response.message # => "OK"
  #
  #   response.status = 404
  #   response.message # => "Not Found"
  #
  def message
    Rack::Utils::HTTP_STATUS_CODES[@status]
  end
  alias_method :status_message, :message

  # Returns the content of the response as a string. This contains the contents
  # of any calls to <tt>render</tt>.
  def body
    @stream.body
  end

  def write(string)
    @stream.write string
  end

  # Allows you to manually set or override the response body.
  def body=(body)
    if body.respond_to?(:to_path)
      @stream = body
    else
      synchronize do
        @stream = build_buffer self, munge_body_object(body)
      end
    end
  end

  # Avoid having to pass an open file handle as the response body.
  # Rack::Sendfile will usually intercept the response and uses
  # the path directly, so there is no reason to open the file.
  class FileBody #:nodoc:
    attr_reader :to_path

    def initialize(path)
      @to_path = path
    end

    def body
      File.binread(to_path)
    end

    # Stream the file's contents if Rack::Sendfile isn't present.
    def each
      File.open(to_path, "rb") do |file|
        while chunk = file.read(16384)
          yield chunk
        end
      end
    end
  end

  # Send the file stored at +path+ as the response body.
  def send_file(path)
    commit!
    @stream = FileBody.new(path)
  end

  def reset_body!
    @stream = build_buffer(self, [])
  end

  def body_parts
    parts = []
    @stream.each { |x| parts << x }
    parts
  end

  # The location header we'll be responding with.
  alias_method :redirect_url, :location

  def close
    stream.close if stream.respond_to?(:close)
  end

  def abort
    if stream.respond_to?(:abort)
      stream.abort
    elsif stream.respond_to?(:close)
      # `stream.close` should really be reserved for a close from the
      # other direction, but we must fall back to it for
      # compatibility.
      stream.close
    end
  end

  # Turns the Response into a Rack-compatible array of the status, headers,
  # and body. Allows explicit splatting:
  #
  #   status, headers, body = *response
  def to_a
    commit!
    rack_response @status, @header.to_hash
  end
  alias prepare! to_a

  # Returns the response cookies, converted to a Hash of (name => value) pairs
  #
  #   assert_equal 'AuthorOfNewPage', r.cookies['author']
  def cookies
    cookies = {}
    if header = get_header(SET_COOKIE)
      header = header.split("\n") if header.respond_to?(:to_str)
      header.each do |cookie|
        if pair = cookie.split(";").first
          key, value = pair.split("=").map { |v| Rack::Utils.unescape(v) }
          cookies[key] = value
        end
      end
    end
    cookies
  end

private

  ContentTypeHeader = Struct.new :mime_type, :charset
  NullContentTypeHeader = ContentTypeHeader.new nil, nil

  def parse_content_type(content_type)
    if content_type
      type, charset = content_type.split(/;\s*charset=/)
      type = nil if type && type.empty?
      ContentTypeHeader.new(type, charset)
    else
      NullContentTypeHeader
    end
  end

  # Small internal convenience method to get the parsed version of the current
  # content type header.
  def parsed_content_type_header
    parse_content_type(get_header(CONTENT_TYPE))
  end

  def set_content_type(content_type, charset)
    type = (content_type || "").dup
    type << "; charset=#{charset.to_s.downcase}" if charset
    set_header CONTENT_TYPE, type
  end

  def before_committed
    return if committed?
    assign_default_content_type_and_charset!
    merge_and_normalize_cache_control!(@cache_control)
    handle_conditional_get!
    handle_no_content!
  end

  def before_sending
    # Normally we've already committed by now, but it's possible
    # (e.g., if the controller action tries to read back its own
    # response) to get here before that. In that case, we must force
    # an "early" commit: we're about to freeze the headers, so this is
    # our last chance.
    commit! unless committed?

    headers.freeze
    request.commit_cookie_jar! unless committed?
  end

  def build_buffer(response, body)
    Buffer.new response, body
  end

  def munge_body_object(body)
    body.respond_to?(:each) ? body : [body]
  end

  def assign_default_content_type_and_charset!
    return if content_type

    ct = parsed_content_type_header
    set_content_type(ct.mime_type || Mime[:html].to_s,
                     ct.charset || self.class.default_charset)
  end

  class RackBody
    def initialize(response)
      @response = response
    end

    def each(*args, &block)
      @response.each(*args, &block)
    end

    def close
      # Rack "close" maps to Response#abort, and *not* Response#close
      # (which is used when the controller's finished writing)
      @response.abort
    end

    def body
      @response.body
    end

    def respond_to?(method, include_private = false)
      if method.to_s == "to_path"
        @response.stream.respond_to?(method)
      else
        super
      end
    end

    def to_path
      @response.stream.to_path
    end

    def to_ary
      nil
    end
  end

  def handle_no_content!
    if NO_CONTENT_CODES.include?(@status)
      @header.delete CONTENT_TYPE
      @header.delete "Content-Length"
    end
  end

  def rack_response(status, header)
    if NO_CONTENT_CODES.include?(status)
      [status, header, []]
    else
      [status, header, RackBody.new(self)]
    end
  end
end
cookies()

Returns the response cookies, converted to a Hash of (name => value) pairs

assert_equal 'AuthorOfNewPage', r.cookies['author']
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 392
def cookies
  cookies = {}
  if header = get_header(SET_COOKIE)
    header = header.split("\n") if header.respond_to?(:to_str)
    header.each do |cookie|
      if pair = cookie.split(";").first
        key, value = pair.split("=").map { |v| Rack::Utils.unescape(v) }
        cookies[key] = value
      end
    end
  end
  cookies
end
delete_header(key)
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 183
def delete_header(key); headers.delete key; end
each(&block)
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 74
def each(&block)
  sending!
  x = @stream.each(&block)
  sent!
  x
end
get_header(key)
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 181
def get_header(key);    headers[key];       end
handle_no_content!()
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 505
def handle_no_content!
  if NO_CONTENT_CODES.include?(@status)
    @header.delete CONTENT_TYPE
    @header.delete "Content-Length"
  end
end
has_header?(key)
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 180
def has_header?(key);   headers.key? key;   end
message()

Returns the corresponding message for the current HTTP status code:

response.status = 200
response.message # => "OK"

response.status = 404
response.message # => "Not Found"
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 295
def message
  Rack::Utils::HTTP_STATUS_CODES[@status]
end
munge_body_object(body)
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 457
def munge_body_object(body)
  body.respond_to?(:each) ? body : [body]
end
parse_content_type(content_type)
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 411
def parse_content_type(content_type)
  if content_type
    type, charset = content_type.split(/;\s*charset=/)
    type = nil if type && type.empty?
    ContentTypeHeader.new(type, charset)
  else
    NullContentTypeHeader
  end
end
parsed_content_type_header()

Small internal convenience method to get the parsed version of the current content type header.

# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 423
def parsed_content_type_header
  parse_content_type(get_header(CONTENT_TYPE))
end
rack_response(status, header)
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 512
def rack_response(status, header)
  if NO_CONTENT_CODES.include?(status)
    [status, header, []]
  else
    [status, header, RackBody.new(self)]
  end
end
reset_body!()
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 351
def reset_body!
  @stream = build_buffer(self, [])
end
response_code()

The response code of the request.

# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 278
def response_code
  @status
end
send_file(path)

Send the file stored at path as the response body.

# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 346
def send_file(path)
  commit!
  @stream = FileBody.new(path)
end
sending!()
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 203
def sending!
  synchronize do
    before_sending
    @sending = true
    @cv.broadcast
  end
end
sending?()
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 218
def sending?;   synchronize { @sending };   end
sending_file=(v)
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 250
def sending_file=(v)
  if true == v
    self.charset = false
  end
end
sent!()
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 211
def sent!
  synchronize do
    @sent = true
    @cv.broadcast
  end
end
sent?()
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 220
def sent?;      synchronize { @sent };      end
set_content_type(content_type, charset)
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 427
def set_content_type(content_type, charset)
  type = (content_type || "").dup
  type << "; charset=#{charset.to_s.downcase}" if charset
  set_header CONTENT_TYPE, type
end
set_header(key, v)
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 182
def set_header(key, v); headers[key] = v;   end
status=(status)

Sets the HTTP status code.

# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 223
def status=(status)
  @status = Rack::Utils.status_code(status)
end
to_a()

Turns the Response into a Rack-compatible array of the status, headers, and body. Allows explicit splatting:

status, headers, body = *response
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 383
def to_a
  commit!
  rack_response @status, @header.to_hash
end
write(string)
# File actionpack/lib/action_dispatch/http/response.rb, line 306
def write(string)
  @stream.write string
end