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The ActionMailer::MessageDelivery class is used by ActionMailer::Base when creating a new mailer. MessageDelivery is a wrapper (Delegator subclass) around a lazy created Mail::Message. You can get direct access to the Mail::Message, deliver the email or schedule the email to be sent through Active Job.

Notifier.welcome(User.first)               # an ActionMailer::MessageDelivery object
Notifier.welcome(User.first).deliver_now   # sends the email
Notifier.welcome(User.first).deliver_later # enqueue email delivery as a job through Active Job
Notifier.welcome(User.first).message       # a Mail::Message object
Methods
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Instance Public methods
deliver_later(options = {})

Enqueues the email to be delivered through Active Job. When the job runs it will send the email using deliver_now.

Notifier.welcome(User.first).deliver_later
Notifier.welcome(User.first).deliver_later(wait: 1.hour)
Notifier.welcome(User.first).deliver_later(wait_until: 10.hours.from_now)

By default, the email will be enqueued using ActionMailer::DeliveryJob. Each ActionMailer::Base class can specify the job to use by setting the class variable delivery_job.

class AccountRegistrationMailer < ApplicationMailer
  self.delivery_job = RegistrationDeliveryJob
end

Options:

  • :wait - Enqueue the email to be delivered with a delay.

  • :wait_until - Enqueue the email to be delivered at (after) a specific date / time.

  • :queue - Enqueue the email on the specified queue.

# File actionmailer/lib/action_mailer/message_delivery.rb, line 92
def deliver_later(options = {})
  enqueue_delivery :deliver_now, options
end
deliver_later!(options = {})

Enqueues the email to be delivered through Active Job. When the job runs it will send the email using deliver_now!. That means that the message will be sent bypassing checking perform_deliveries and raise_delivery_errors, so use with caution.

Notifier.welcome(User.first).deliver_later!
Notifier.welcome(User.first).deliver_later!(wait: 1.hour)
Notifier.welcome(User.first).deliver_later!(wait_until: 10.hours.from_now)

By default, the email will be enqueued using ActionMailer::DeliveryJob. Each ActionMailer::Base class can specify the job to use by setting the class variable delivery_job.

class AccountRegistrationMailer < ApplicationMailer
  self.delivery_job = RegistrationDeliveryJob
end

Options:

  • :wait - Enqueue the email to be delivered with a delay

  • :wait_until - Enqueue the email to be delivered at (after) a specific date / time

  • :queue - Enqueue the email on the specified queue

# File actionmailer/lib/action_mailer/message_delivery.rb, line 68
def deliver_later!(options = {})
  enqueue_delivery :deliver_now!, options
end
deliver_now()

Delivers an email:

Notifier.welcome(User.first).deliver_now
# File actionmailer/lib/action_mailer/message_delivery.rb, line 111
def deliver_now
  processed_mailer.handle_exceptions do
    message.deliver
  end
end
deliver_now!()

Delivers an email without checking perform_deliveries and raise_delivery_errors, so use with caution.

Notifier.welcome(User.first).deliver_now!
# File actionmailer/lib/action_mailer/message_delivery.rb, line 101
def deliver_now!
  processed_mailer.handle_exceptions do
    message.deliver!
  end
end
message()

Returns the resulting Mail::Message

# File actionmailer/lib/action_mailer/message_delivery.rb, line 37
def message
  __getobj__
end
processed?()

Was the delegate loaded, causing the mailer action to be processed?

# File actionmailer/lib/action_mailer/message_delivery.rb, line 42
def processed?
  @processed_mailer || @mail_message
end