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Methods
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C
V
Constants
VALID_OPTIONS_FOR_VALIDATE = [:on, :if, :unless].freeze
 
Instance Public methods
attribute_method?(attribute)

Returns true if attribute is an attribute method, false otherwise.

class Person
  include ActiveModel::Validations

  attr_accessor :name
end

User.attribute_method?(:name) # => true
User.attribute_method?(:age)  # => false
# File activemodel/lib/active_model/validations.rb, line 263
def attribute_method?(attribute)
  method_defined?(attribute)
end
clear_validators!()

Clears all of the validators and validations.

Note that this will clear anything that is being used to validate the model for both the validates_with and validate methods. It clears the validators that are created with an invocation of validates_with and the callbacks that are set by an invocation of validate.

class Person
  include ActiveModel::Validations

  validates_with MyValidator
  validates_with OtherValidator, on: :create
  validates_with StrictValidator, strict: true
  validate :cannot_be_robot

  def cannot_be_robot
    errors.add(:base, 'A person cannot be a robot') if person_is_robot
  end
end

Person.validators
# => [
#      #<MyValidator:0x007fbff403e808 @options={}>,
#      #<OtherValidator:0x007fbff403d930 @options={on: :create}>,
#      #<StrictValidator:0x007fbff3204a30 @options={strict:true}>
#    ]

If one runs Person.clear_validators! and then checks to see what validators this class has, you would obtain:

Person.validators # => []

Also, the callback set by validate :cannot_be_robot will be erased so that:

Person._validate_callbacks.empty?  # => true
# File activemodel/lib/active_model/validations.rb, line 227
def clear_validators!
  reset_callbacks(:validate)
  _validators.clear
end
validate(*args, &block)

Adds a validation method or block to the class. This is useful when overriding the validate instance method becomes too unwieldy and you're looking for more descriptive declaration of your validations.

This can be done with a symbol pointing to a method:

class Comment
  include ActiveModel::Validations

  validate :must_be_friends

  def must_be_friends
    errors.add(:base, 'Must be friends to leave a comment') unless commenter.friend_of?(commentee)
  end
end

With a block which is passed with the current record to be validated:

class Comment
  include ActiveModel::Validations

  validate do |comment|
    comment.must_be_friends
  end

  def must_be_friends
    errors.add(:base, 'Must be friends to leave a comment') unless commenter.friend_of?(commentee)
  end
end

Or with a block where self points to the current record to be validated:

class Comment
  include ActiveModel::Validations

  validate do
    errors.add(:base, 'Must be friends to leave a comment') unless commenter.friend_of?(commentee)
  end
end

Options:

  • :on - Specifies the contexts where this validation is active. You can pass a symbol or an array of symbols. (e.g. on: :create or on: :custom_validation_context or on: [:create, :custom_validation_context])

  • :if - Specifies a method, proc or string to call to determine if the validation should occur (e.g. if: :allow_validation, or if: Proc.new { |user| user.signup_step > 2 }). The method, proc or string should return or evaluate to a true or false value.

  • :unless - Specifies a method, proc or string to call to determine if the validation should not occur (e.g. unless: :skip_validation, or unless: Proc.new { |user| user.signup_step <= 2 }). The method, proc or string should return or evaluate to a true or false value.

# File activemodel/lib/active_model/validations.rb, line 145
def validate(*args, &block)
  options = args.extract_options!

  if args.all? { |arg| arg.is_a?(Symbol) }
    options.each_key do |k|
      unless VALID_OPTIONS_FOR_VALIDATE.include?(k)
        raise ArgumentError.new("Unknown key: #{k.inspect}. Valid keys are: #{VALID_OPTIONS_FOR_VALIDATE.map(&:inspect).join(', ')}. Perhaps you meant to call `validates` instead of `validate`?")
      end
    end
  end

  if options.key?(:on)
    options = options.dup
    options[:if] = Array(options[:if])
    options[:if].unshift lambda { |o|
      Array(options[:on]).include?(o.validation_context)
    }
  end

  args << options
  set_callback(:validate, *args, &block)
end
validates(*attributes)

This method is a shortcut to all default validators and any custom validator classes ending in 'Validator'. Note that Rails default validators can be overridden inside specific classes by creating custom validator classes in their place such as PresenceValidator.

Examples of using the default rails validators:

validates :terms, acceptance: true
validates :password, confirmation: true
validates :username, exclusion: { in: %w(admin superuser) }
validates :email, format: { with: /\A([^@\s]+)@((?:[-a-z0-9]+\.)+[a-z]{2,})\z/i, on: :create }
validates :age, inclusion: { in: 0..9 }
validates :first_name, length: { maximum: 30 }
validates :age, numericality: true
validates :username, presence: true
validates :username, uniqueness: true

The power of the validates method comes when using custom validators and default validators in one call for a given attribute.

class EmailValidator < ActiveModel::EachValidator
  def validate_each(record, attribute, value)
    record.errors.add attribute, (options[:message] || "is not an email") unless
      value =~ /\A([^@\s]+)@((?:[-a-z0-9]+\.)+[a-z]{2,})\z/i
  end
end

class Person
  include ActiveModel::Validations
  attr_accessor :name, :email

  validates :name, presence: true, uniqueness: true, length: { maximum: 100 }
  validates :email, presence: true, email: true
end

Validator classes may also exist within the class being validated allowing custom modules of validators to be included as needed.

class Film
  include ActiveModel::Validations

  class TitleValidator < ActiveModel::EachValidator
    def validate_each(record, attribute, value)
      record.errors.add attribute, "must start with 'the'" unless value =~ /\Athe/i
    end
  end

  validates :name, title: true
end

Additionally validator classes may be in another namespace and still used within any class.

validates :name, :'film/title' => true

The validators hash can also handle regular expressions, ranges, arrays and strings in shortcut form.

validates :email, format: /@/
validates :gender, inclusion: %w(male female)
validates :password, length: 6..20

When using shortcut form, ranges and arrays are passed to your validator's initializer as options[:in] while other types including regular expressions and strings are passed as options[:with].

There is also a list of options that could be used along with validators:

  • :on - Specifies when this validation is active. Runs in all validation contexts by default (nil), other options are :create and :update.

  • :if - Specifies a method, proc or string to call to determine if the validation should occur (e.g. if: :allow_validation, or if: Proc.new { |user| user.signup_step > 2 }). The method, proc or string should return or evaluate to a true or false value.

  • :unless - Specifies a method, proc or string to call to determine if the validation should not occur (e.g. unless: :skip_validation, or unless: Proc.new { |user| user.signup_step <= 2 }). The method, proc or string should return or evaluate to a true or false value.

  • :allow_nil - Skip validation if the attribute is nil.

  • :allow_blank - Skip validation if the attribute is blank.

  • :strict - If the :strict option is set to true will raise ActiveModel::StrictValidationFailed instead of adding the error. :strict option can also be set to any other exception.

Example:

validates :password, presence: true, confirmation: true, if: :password_required?
validates :token, uniqueness: true, strict: TokenGenerationException

Finally, the options :if, :unless, :on, :allow_blank, :allow_nil, :strict and :message can be given to one specific validator, as a hash:

validates :password, presence: { if: :password_required?, message: 'is forgotten.' }, confirmation: true
# File activemodel/lib/active_model/validations/validates.rb, line 102
def validates(*attributes)
  defaults = attributes.extract_options!.dup
  validations = defaults.slice!(*_validates_default_keys)

  raise ArgumentError, "You need to supply at least one attribute" if attributes.empty?
  raise ArgumentError, "You need to supply at least one validation" if validations.empty?

  defaults[:attributes] = attributes

  validations.each do |key, options|
    next unless options
    key = "#{key.to_s.camelize}Validator"

    begin
      validator = key.include?('::') ? key.constantize : const_get(key)
    rescue NameError
      raise ArgumentError, "Unknown validator: '#{key}'"
    end

    validates_with(validator, defaults.merge(_parse_validates_options(options)))
  end
end
validates!(*attributes)

This method is used to define validations that cannot be corrected by end users and are considered exceptional. So each validator defined with bang or :strict option set to true will always raise ActiveModel::StrictValidationFailed instead of adding error when validation fails. See validates for more information about the validation itself.

class Person
  include ActiveModel::Validations

  attr_accessor :name
  validates! :name, presence: true
end

person = Person.new
person.name = ''
person.valid?
# => ActiveModel::StrictValidationFailed: Name can't be blank
# File activemodel/lib/active_model/validations/validates.rb, line 143
def validates!(*attributes)
  options = attributes.extract_options!
  options[:strict] = true
  validates(*(attributes << options))
end
validates_each(*attr_names, &block)

Validates each attribute against a block.

class Person
  include ActiveModel::Validations

  attr_accessor :first_name, :last_name

  validates_each :first_name, :last_name, allow_blank: true do |record, attr, value|
    record.errors.add attr, 'starts with z.' if value.to_s[0] == ?z
  end
end

Options:

  • :on - Specifies the contexts where this validation is active. You can pass a symbol or an array of symbols. (e.g. on: :create or on: :custom_validation_context or on: [:create, :custom_validation_context])

  • :allow_nil - Skip validation if attribute is nil.

  • :allow_blank - Skip validation if attribute is blank.

  • :if - Specifies a method, proc or string to call to determine if the validation should occur (e.g. if: :allow_validation, or if: Proc.new { |user| user.signup_step > 2 }). The method, proc or string should return or evaluate to a true or false value.

  • :unless - Specifies a method, proc or string to call to determine if the validation should not occur (e.g. unless: :skip_validation, or unless: Proc.new { |user| user.signup_step <= 2 }). The method, proc or string should return or evaluate to a true or false value.

# File activemodel/lib/active_model/validations.rb, line 85
def validates_each(*attr_names, &block)
  validates_with BlockValidator, _merge_attributes(attr_names), &block
end
validates_with(*args, &block)

Passes the record off to the class or classes specified and allows them to add errors based on more complex conditions.

class Person
  include ActiveModel::Validations
  validates_with MyValidator
end

class MyValidator < ActiveModel::Validator
  def validate(record)
    if some_complex_logic
      record.errors.add :base, 'This record is invalid'
    end
  end

  private
    def some_complex_logic
      # ...
    end
end

You may also pass it multiple classes, like so:

class Person
  include ActiveModel::Validations
  validates_with MyValidator, MyOtherValidator, on: :create
end

Configuration options:

  • :on - Specifies when this validation is active (:create or :update).

  • :if - Specifies a method, proc or string to call to determine if the validation should occur (e.g. if: :allow_validation, or if: Proc.new { |user| user.signup_step > 2 }). The method, proc or string should return or evaluate to a true or false value.

  • :unless - Specifies a method, proc or string to call to determine if the validation should not occur (e.g. unless: :skip_validation, or unless: Proc.new { |user| user.signup_step <= 2 }). The method, proc or string should return or evaluate to a true or false value.

  • :strict - Specifies whether validation should be strict. See ActiveModel::Validation#validates! for more information.

If you pass any additional configuration options, they will be passed to the class and available as options:

class Person
  include ActiveModel::Validations
  validates_with MyValidator, my_custom_key: 'my custom value'
end

class MyValidator < ActiveModel::Validator
  def validate(record)
    options[:my_custom_key] # => "my custom value"
  end
end
# File activemodel/lib/active_model/validations/with.rb, line 84
def validates_with(*args, &block)
  options = args.extract_options!
  options[:class] = self

  args.each do |klass|
    validator = klass.new(options, &block)

    if validator.respond_to?(:attributes) && !validator.attributes.empty?
      validator.attributes.each do |attribute|
        _validators[attribute.to_sym] << validator
      end
    else
      _validators[nil] << validator
    end

    validate(validator, options)
  end
end
validators()

List all validators that are being used to validate the model using validates_with method.

class Person
  include ActiveModel::Validations

  validates_with MyValidator
  validates_with OtherValidator, on: :create
  validates_with StrictValidator, strict: true
end

Person.validators
# => [
#      #<MyValidator:0x007fbff403e808 @options={}>,
#      #<OtherValidator:0x007fbff403d930 @options={on: :create}>,
#      #<StrictValidator:0x007fbff3204a30 @options={strict:true}>
#    ]
# File activemodel/lib/active_model/validations.rb, line 185
def validators
  _validators.values.flatten.uniq
end
validators_on(*attributes)

List all validators that are being used to validate a specific attribute.

class Person
  include ActiveModel::Validations

  attr_accessor :name , :age

  validates_presence_of :name
  validates_inclusion_of :age, in: 0..99
end

Person.validators_on(:name)
# => [
#       #<ActiveModel::Validations::PresenceValidator:0x007fe604914e60 @attributes=[:name], @options={}>,
#    ]
# File activemodel/lib/active_model/validations.rb, line 247
def validators_on(*attributes)
  attributes.flat_map do |attribute|
    _validators[attribute.to_sym]
  end
end