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Active Record Relation

Methods
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Included Modules
Constants
JoinOperation = Struct.new(:relation, :join_class, :on)
 
MULTI_VALUE_METHODS = [:includes, :eager_load, :preload, :select, :group, :order, :joins, :where, :having, :bind, :references, :extending, :unscope]
 
SINGLE_VALUE_METHODS = [:limit, :offset, :lock, :readonly, :from, :reordering, :reverse_order, :distinct, :create_with, :uniq]
 
INVALID_METHODS_FOR_DELETE_ALL = [:limit, :distinct, :offset, :group, :having]
 
VALUE_METHODS = MULTI_VALUE_METHODS + SINGLE_VALUE_METHODS
 
Attributes
[R] klass
[R] loaded
[R] loaded?
[R] model
[R] table
Class Public methods
new(klass, table, values = {})
# File activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb, line 24
def initialize(klass, table, values = {})
  @klass  = klass
  @table  = table
  @values = values
  @offsets = {}
  @loaded = false
end
Instance Public methods
==(other)

Compares two relations for equality.

# File activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb, line 600
def ==(other)
  case other
  when Associations::CollectionProxy, AssociationRelation
    self == other.to_a
  when Relation
    other.to_sql == to_sql
  when Array
    to_a == other
  end
end
any?()

Returns true if there are any records.

# File activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb, line 271
def any?
  if block_given?
    to_a.any? { |*block_args| yield(*block_args) }
  else
    !empty?
  end
end
blank?()

Returns true if relation is blank.

# File activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb, line 616
def blank?
  to_a.blank?
end
build(*args, &block)
Alias for: new
create(*args, &block)

Tries to create a new record with the same scoped attributes defined in the relation. Returns the initialized object if validation fails.

Expects arguments in the same format as Base.create.

Examples

users = User.where(name: 'Oscar')
users.create # #<User id: 3, name: "oscar", ...>

users.create(name: 'fxn')
users.create # #<User id: 4, name: "fxn", ...>

users.create { |user| user.name = 'tenderlove' }
# #<User id: 5, name: "tenderlove", ...>

users.create(name: nil) # validation on name
# #<User id: nil, name: nil, ...>
# File activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb, line 139
def create(*args, &block)
  scoping { @klass.create(*args, &block) }
end
create!(*args, &block)

Similar to create, but calls create! on the base class. Raises an exception if a validation error occurs.

Expects arguments in the same format as Base.create!.

# File activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb, line 147
def create!(*args, &block)
  scoping { @klass.create!(*args, &block) }
end
delete(id_or_array)

Deletes the row with a primary key matching the id argument, using a SQL DELETE statement, and returns the number of rows deleted. Active Record objects are not instantiated, so the object's callbacks are not executed, including any :dependent association options.

You can delete multiple rows at once by passing an Array of ids.

Note: Although it is often much faster than the alternative, #destroy, skipping callbacks might bypass business logic in your application that ensures referential integrity or performs other essential jobs.

Examples

# Delete a single row
Todo.delete(1)

# Delete multiple rows
Todo.delete([2,3,4])
# File activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb, line 499
def delete(id_or_array)
  where(primary_key => id_or_array).delete_all
end
delete_all(conditions = nil)

Deletes the records matching conditions without instantiating the records first, and hence not calling the destroy method nor invoking callbacks. This is a single SQL DELETE statement that goes straight to the database, much more efficient than destroy_all. Be careful with relations though, in particular :dependent rules defined on associations are not honored. Returns the number of rows affected.

Post.delete_all("person_id = 5 AND (category = 'Something' OR category = 'Else')")
Post.delete_all(["person_id = ? AND (category = ? OR category = ?)", 5, 'Something', 'Else'])
Post.where(person_id: 5).where(category: ['Something', 'Else']).delete_all

Both calls delete the affected posts all at once with a single DELETE statement. If you need to destroy dependent associations or call your before_* or after_destroy callbacks, use the destroy_all method instead.

If an invalid method is supplied, delete_all raises an ActiveRecord error:

Post.limit(100).delete_all
# => ActiveRecord::ActiveRecordError: delete_all doesn't support limit
# File activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb, line 449
def delete_all(conditions = nil)
  invalid_methods = INVALID_METHODS_FOR_DELETE_ALL.select { |method|
    if MULTI_VALUE_METHODS.include?(method)
      send("#{method}_values").any?
    else
      send("#{method}_value")
    end
  }
  if invalid_methods.any?
    raise ActiveRecordError.new("delete_all doesn't support #{invalid_methods.join(', ')}")
  end

  if conditions
    where(conditions).delete_all
  else
    stmt = Arel::DeleteManager.new(arel.engine)
    stmt.from(table)

    if joins_values.any?
      @klass.connection.join_to_delete(stmt, arel, table[primary_key])
    else
      stmt.wheres = arel.constraints
    end

    affected = @klass.connection.delete(stmt, 'SQL', bind_values)

    reset
    affected
  end
end
destroy(id)

Destroy an object (or multiple objects) that has the given id. The object is instantiated first, therefore all callbacks and filters are fired off before the object is deleted. This method is less efficient than ActiveRecord#delete but allows cleanup methods and other actions to be run.

This essentially finds the object (or multiple objects) with the given id, creates a new object from the attributes, and then calls destroy on it.

Parameters

Examples

# Destroy a single object
Todo.destroy(1)

# Destroy multiple objects
todos = [1,2,3]
Todo.destroy(todos)
# File activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb, line 422
def destroy(id)
  if id.is_a?(Array)
    id.map { |one_id| destroy(one_id) }
  else
    find(id).destroy
  end
end
destroy_all(conditions = nil)

Destroys the records matching conditions by instantiating each record and calling its destroy method. Each object's callbacks are executed (including :dependent association options). Returns the collection of objects that were destroyed; each will be frozen, to reflect that no changes should be made (since they can't be persisted).

Note: Instantiation, callback execution, and deletion of each record can be time consuming when you're removing many records at once. It generates at least one SQL DELETE query per record (or possibly more, to enforce your callbacks). If you want to delete many rows quickly, without concern for their associations or callbacks, use delete_all instead.

Parameters

  • conditions - A string, array, or hash that specifies which records to destroy. If omitted, all records are destroyed. See the Conditions section in the introduction to ActiveRecord::Base for more information.

Examples

Person.destroy_all("last_login < '2004-04-04'")
Person.destroy_all(status: "inactive")
Person.where(age: 0..18).destroy_all
# File activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb, line 395
def destroy_all(conditions = nil)
  if conditions
    where(conditions).destroy_all
  else
    to_a.each {|object| object.destroy }.tap { reset }
  end
end
eager_loading?()

Returns true if relation needs eager loading.

# File activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb, line 579
def eager_loading?
  @should_eager_load ||=
    eager_load_values.any? ||
    includes_values.any? && (joined_includes_values.any? || references_eager_loaded_tables?)
end
empty?()

Returns true if there are no records.

# File activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb, line 259
def empty?
  return @records.empty? if loaded?

  if limit_value == 0
    true
  else
    c = count(:all)
    c.respond_to?(:zero?) ? c.zero? : c.empty?
  end
end
encode_with(coder)

Serializes the relation objects Array.

# File activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb, line 245
def encode_with(coder)
  coder.represent_seq(nil, to_a)
end
explain()

Runs EXPLAIN on the query or queries triggered by this relation and returns the result as a string. The string is formatted imitating the ones printed by the database shell.

Note that this method actually runs the queries, since the results of some are needed by the next ones when eager loading is going on.

Please see further details in the Active Record Query Interface guide.

# File activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb, line 233
def explain
  #TODO: Fix for binds.
  exec_explain(collecting_queries_for_explain { exec_queries })
end
find_or_create_by(attributes, &block)

Finds the first record with the given attributes, or creates a record with the attributes if one is not found:

# Find the first user named "Penélope" or create a new one.
User.find_or_create_by(first_name: 'Penélope')
# => #<User id: 1, first_name: "Penélope", last_name: nil>

# Find the first user named "Penélope" or create a new one.
# We already have one so the existing record will be returned.
User.find_or_create_by(first_name: 'Penélope')
# => #<User id: 1, first_name: "Penélope", last_name: nil>

# Find the first user named "Scarlett" or create a new one with
# a particular last name.
User.create_with(last_name: 'Johansson').find_or_create_by(first_name: 'Scarlett')
# => #<User id: 2, first_name: "Scarlett", last_name: "Johansson">

This method accepts a block, which is passed down to create. The last example above can be alternatively written this way:

# Find the first user named "Scarlett" or create a new one with a
# different last name.
User.find_or_create_by(first_name: 'Scarlett') do |user|
  user.last_name = 'Johansson'
end
# => #<User id: 2, first_name: "Scarlett", last_name: "Johansson">

This method always returns a record, but if creation was attempted and failed due to validation errors it won't be persisted, you get what create returns in such situation.

Please note *this method is not atomic*, it runs first a SELECT, and if there are no results an INSERT is attempted. If there are other threads or processes there is a race condition between both calls and it could be the case that you end up with two similar records.

Whether that is a problem or not depends on the logic of the application, but in the particular case in which rows have a UNIQUE constraint an exception may be raised, just retry:

begin
  CreditAccount.find_or_create_by(user_id: user.id)
rescue ActiveRecord::RecordNotUnique
  retry
end
# File activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb, line 209
def find_or_create_by(attributes, &block)
  find_by(attributes) || create(attributes, &block)
end
find_or_create_by!(attributes, &block)

Like find_or_create_by, but calls create! so an exception is raised if the created record is invalid.

# File activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb, line 215
def find_or_create_by!(attributes, &block)
  find_by(attributes) || create!(attributes, &block)
end
find_or_initialize_by(attributes, &block)

Like find_or_create_by, but calls new instead of create.

# File activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb, line 220
def find_or_initialize_by(attributes, &block)
  find_by(attributes) || new(attributes, &block)
end
initialize_copy(other)
# File activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb, line 32
def initialize_copy(other)
  # This method is a hot spot, so for now, use Hash[] to dup the hash.
  #   https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/7166
  @values        = Hash[@values]
  @values[:bind] = @values[:bind].dup if @values.key? :bind
  reset
end
inspect()
# File activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb, line 624
def inspect
  entries = to_a.take([limit_value, 11].compact.min).map!(&:inspect)
  entries[10] = '...' if entries.size == 11

  "#<#{self.class.name} [#{entries.join(', ')}]>"
end
joined_includes_values()

Joins that are also marked for preloading. In which case we should just eager load them. Note that this is a naive implementation because we could have strings and symbols which represent the same association, but that aren't matched by this. Also, we could have nested hashes which partially match, e.g. { a: :b } & { a: [:b, :c] }

# File activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb, line 589
def joined_includes_values
  includes_values & joins_values
end
load()

Causes the records to be loaded from the database if they have not been loaded already. You can use this if for some reason you need to explicitly load some records before actually using them. The return value is the relation itself, not the records.

Post.where(published: true).load # => #<ActiveRecord::Relation>
# File activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb, line 509
def load
  exec_queries unless loaded?

  self
end
many?()

Returns true if there is more than one record.

# File activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb, line 280
def many?
  if block_given?
    to_a.many? { |*block_args| yield(*block_args) }
  else
    limit_value ? to_a.many? : size > 1
  end
end
new(*args, &block)

Initializes new record from relation while maintaining the current scope.

Expects arguments in the same format as Base.new.

users = User.where(name: 'DHH')
user = users.new # => #<User id: nil, name: "DHH", created_at: nil, updated_at: nil>

You can also pass a block to new with the new record as argument:

user = users.new { |user| user.name = 'Oscar' }
user.name # => Oscar
Also aliased as: build
# File activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb, line 116
def new(*args, &block)
  scoping { @klass.new(*args, &block) }
end
pretty_print(q)
# File activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb, line 611
def pretty_print(q)
  q.pp(self.to_a)
end
reload()

Forces reloading of relation.

# File activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb, line 516
def reload
  reset
  load
end
reset()
# File activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb, line 521
def reset
  @last = @to_sql = @order_clause = @scope_for_create = @arel = @loaded = nil
  @should_eager_load = @join_dependency = nil
  @records = []
  @offsets = {}
  self
end
scope_for_create()
# File activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb, line 574
def scope_for_create
  @scope_for_create ||= where_values_hash.merge(create_with_value)
end
scoping()

Scope all queries to the current scope.

Comment.where(post_id: 1).scoping do
  Comment.first
end
# => SELECT "comments".* FROM "comments" WHERE "comments"."post_id" = 1 ORDER BY "comments"."id" ASC LIMIT 1

Please check unscoped if you want to remove all previous scopes (including the default_scope) during the execution of a block.

# File activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb, line 297
def scoping
  previous, klass.current_scope = klass.current_scope, self
  yield
ensure
  klass.current_scope = previous
end
size()

Returns size of the records.

# File activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb, line 254
def size
  loaded? ? @records.length : count(:all)
end
to_a()

Converts relation objects to Array.

# File activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb, line 239
def to_a
  load
  @records
end
to_sql()

Returns sql statement for the relation.

User.where(name: 'Oscar').to_sql
# => SELECT "users".* FROM "users"  WHERE "users"."name" = 'Oscar'
# File activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb, line 533
def to_sql
  @to_sql ||= begin
                relation   = self
                connection = klass.connection
                visitor    = connection.visitor

                if eager_loading?
                  find_with_associations { |rel| relation = rel }
                end

                arel  = relation.arel
                binds = (arel.bind_values + relation.bind_values).dup
                binds.map! { |bv| connection.quote(*bv.reverse) }
                collect = visitor.accept(arel.ast, Arel::Collectors::Bind.new)
                collect.substitute_binds(binds).join
              end
end
uniq_value()

uniq and uniq! are silently deprecated. uniq_value delegates to distinct_value to maintain backwards compatibility. Use distinct_value instead.

# File activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb, line 595
def uniq_value
  distinct_value
end
update(id, attributes)

Updates an object (or multiple objects) and saves it to the database, if validations pass. The resulting object is returned whether the object was saved successfully to the database or not.

Parameters

  • id - This should be the id or an array of ids to be updated.

  • attributes - This should be a hash of attributes or an array of hashes.

Examples

# Updates one record
Person.update(15, user_name: 'Samuel', group: 'expert')

# Updates multiple records
people = { 1 => { "first_name" => "David" }, 2 => { "first_name" => "Jeremy" } }
Person.update(people.keys, people.values)
# File activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb, line 360
def update(id, attributes)
  if id.is_a?(Array)
    id.map.with_index { |one_id, idx| update(one_id, attributes[idx]) }
  else
    object = find(id)
    object.update(attributes)
    object
  end
end
update_all(updates)

Updates all records with details given if they match a set of conditions supplied, limits and order can also be supplied. This method constructs a single SQL UPDATE statement and sends it straight to the database. It does not instantiate the involved models and it does not trigger Active Record callbacks or validations.

Parameters

  • updates - A string, array, or hash representing the SET part of an SQL statement.

Examples

# Update all customers with the given attributes
Customer.update_all wants_email: true

# Update all books with 'Rails' in their title
Book.where('title LIKE ?', '%Rails%').update_all(author: 'David')

# Update all books that match conditions, but limit it to 5 ordered by date
Book.where('title LIKE ?', '%Rails%').order(:created_at).limit(5).update_all(author: 'David')
# File activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb, line 323
def update_all(updates)
  raise ArgumentError, "Empty list of attributes to change" if updates.blank?

  stmt = Arel::UpdateManager.new(arel.engine)

  stmt.set Arel.sql(@klass.send(:sanitize_sql_for_assignment, updates))
  stmt.table(table)
  stmt.key = table[primary_key]

  if joins_values.any?
    @klass.connection.join_to_update(stmt, arel)
  else
    stmt.take(arel.limit)
    stmt.order(*arel.orders)
    stmt.wheres = arel.constraints
  end

  bvs = bind_values + arel.bind_values
  @klass.connection.update stmt, 'SQL', bvs
end
values()
# File activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb, line 620
def values
  Hash[@values]
end
where_values_hash(relation_table_name = table_name)

Returns a hash of where conditions.

User.where(name: 'Oscar').where_values_hash
# => {name: "Oscar"}
# File activerecord/lib/active_record/relation.rb, line 555
def where_values_hash(relation_table_name = table_name)
  equalities = where_values.grep(Arel::Nodes::Equality).find_all { |node|
    node.left.relation.name == relation_table_name
  }

  binds = Hash[bind_values.find_all(&:first).map { |column, v| [column.name, v] }]

  Hash[equalities.map { |where|
    name = where.left.name
    [name, binds.fetch(name.to_s) {
      case where.right
      when Array then where.right.map(&:val)
      else
        where.right.val
      end
    }]
  }]
end