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Namespace
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U
Constants
NORMALIZATION_FORMS = [:c, :kc, :d, :kd]
 

A list of all available normalization forms. See www.unicode.org/reports/tr15/tr15-29.html for more information about normalization.

UNICODE_VERSION = '6.3.0'
 

The Unicode version that is supported by the implementation

HANGUL_SBASE = 0xAC00
 

Hangul character boundaries and properties

HANGUL_LBASE = 0x1100
 
HANGUL_VBASE = 0x1161
 
HANGUL_TBASE = 0x11A7
 
HANGUL_LCOUNT = 19
 
HANGUL_VCOUNT = 21
 
HANGUL_TCOUNT = 28
 
HANGUL_NCOUNT = HANGUL_VCOUNT * HANGUL_TCOUNT
 
HANGUL_SCOUNT = 11172
 
HANGUL_SLAST = HANGUL_SBASE + HANGUL_SCOUNT
 
HANGUL_JAMO_FIRST = 0x1100
 
HANGUL_JAMO_LAST = 0x11FF
 
WHITESPACE = [ (0x0009..0x000D).to_a, # White_Space # Cc [5] <control-0009>..<control-000D> 0x0020, # White_Space # Zs SPACE 0x0085, # White_Space # Cc <control-0085> 0x00A0, # White_Space # Zs NO-BREAK SPACE 0x1680, # White_Space # Zs OGHAM SPACE MARK 0x180E, # White_Space # Zs MONGOLIAN VOWEL SEPARATOR (0x2000..0x200A).to_a, # White_Space # Zs [11] EN QUAD..HAIR SPACE 0x2028, # White_Space # Zl LINE SEPARATOR 0x2029, # White_Space # Zp PARAGRAPH SEPARATOR 0x202F, # White_Space # Zs NARROW NO-BREAK SPACE 0x205F, # White_Space # Zs MEDIUM MATHEMATICAL SPACE 0x3000, # White_Space # Zs IDEOGRAPHIC SPACE ].flatten.freeze
 

All the unicode whitespace

LEADERS_AND_TRAILERS = WHITESPACE + [65279]
 

BOM (byte order mark) can also be seen as whitespace, it's a non-rendering character used to distinguish between little and big endian. This is not an issue in utf-8, so it must be ignored.

TRAILERS_PAT = /(#{codepoints_to_pattern(LEADERS_AND_TRAILERS)})+\Z/u
 
LEADERS_PAT = /\A(#{codepoints_to_pattern(LEADERS_AND_TRAILERS)})+/u
 
Attributes
[RW] default_normalization_form

The default normalization used for operations that require normalization. It can be set to any of the normalizations in NORMALIZATION_FORMS.

ActiveSupport::Multibyte::Unicode.default_normalization_form = :c
Instance Public methods
compose(codepoints)

Compose decomposed characters to the composed form.

# File activesupport/lib/active_support/multibyte/unicode.rb, line 156
def compose(codepoints)
  pos = 0
  eoa = codepoints.length - 1
  starter_pos = 0
  starter_char = codepoints[0]
  previous_combining_class = -1
  while pos < eoa
    pos += 1
    lindex = starter_char - HANGUL_LBASE
    # -- Hangul
    if 0 <= lindex and lindex < HANGUL_LCOUNT
      vindex = codepoints[starter_pos+1] - HANGUL_VBASE rescue vindex = -1
      if 0 <= vindex and vindex < HANGUL_VCOUNT
        tindex = codepoints[starter_pos+2] - HANGUL_TBASE rescue tindex = -1
        if 0 <= tindex and tindex < HANGUL_TCOUNT
          j = starter_pos + 2
          eoa -= 2
        else
          tindex = 0
          j = starter_pos + 1
          eoa -= 1
        end
        codepoints[starter_pos..j] = (lindex * HANGUL_VCOUNT + vindex) * HANGUL_TCOUNT + tindex + HANGUL_SBASE
      end
      starter_pos += 1
      starter_char = codepoints[starter_pos]
    # -- Other characters
    else
      current_char = codepoints[pos]
      current = database.codepoints[current_char]
      if current.combining_class > previous_combining_class
        if ref = database.composition_map[starter_char]
          composition = ref[current_char]
        else
          composition = nil
        end
        unless composition.nil?
          codepoints[starter_pos] = composition
          starter_char = composition
          codepoints.delete_at pos
          eoa -= 1
          pos -= 1
          previous_combining_class = -1
        else
          previous_combining_class = current.combining_class
        end
      else
        previous_combining_class = current.combining_class
      end
      if current.combining_class == 0
        starter_pos = pos
        starter_char = codepoints[pos]
      end
    end
  end
  codepoints
end
decompose(type, codepoints)

Decompose composed characters to the decomposed form.

# File activesupport/lib/active_support/multibyte/unicode.rb, line 135
def decompose(type, codepoints)
  codepoints.inject([]) do |decomposed, cp|
    # if it's a hangul syllable starter character
    if HANGUL_SBASE <= cp and cp < HANGUL_SLAST
      sindex = cp - HANGUL_SBASE
      ncp = [] # new codepoints
      ncp << HANGUL_LBASE + sindex / HANGUL_NCOUNT
      ncp << HANGUL_VBASE + (sindex % HANGUL_NCOUNT) / HANGUL_TCOUNT
      tindex = sindex % HANGUL_TCOUNT
      ncp << (HANGUL_TBASE + tindex) unless tindex == 0
      decomposed.concat ncp
    # if the codepoint is decomposable in with the current decomposition type
    elsif (ncp = database.codepoints[cp].decomp_mapping) and (!database.codepoints[cp].decomp_type || type == :compatibility)
      decomposed.concat decompose(type, ncp.dup)
    else
      decomposed << cp
    end
  end
end
downcase(string)
# File activesupport/lib/active_support/multibyte/unicode.rb, line 279
def downcase(string)
  apply_mapping string, :lowercase_mapping
end
in_char_class?(codepoint, classes)

Detect whether the codepoint is in a certain character class. Returns true when it's in the specified character class and false otherwise. Valid character classes are: :cr, :lf, :l, :v, :lv, :lvt and :t.

Primarily used by the grapheme cluster support.

# File activesupport/lib/active_support/multibyte/unicode.rb, line 72
def in_char_class?(codepoint, classes)
  classes.detect { |c| database.boundary[c] === codepoint } ? true : false
end
normalize(string, form=nil)

Returns the KC normalization of the string by default. NFKC is considered the best normalization form for passing strings to databases and validations.

  • string - The string to perform normalization on.

  • form - The form you want to normalize in. Should be one of the following: :c, :kc, :d, or :kd. Default is ActiveSupport::Multibyte.default_normalization_form.

# File activesupport/lib/active_support/multibyte/unicode.rb, line 261
def normalize(string, form=nil)
  form ||= @default_normalization_form
  # See http://www.unicode.org/reports/tr15, Table 1
  codepoints = string.codepoints.to_a
  case form
    when :d
      reorder_characters(decompose(:canonical, codepoints))
    when :c
      compose(reorder_characters(decompose(:canonical, codepoints)))
    when :kd
      reorder_characters(decompose(:compatibility, codepoints))
    when :kc
      compose(reorder_characters(decompose(:compatibility, codepoints)))
    else
      raise ArgumentError, "#{form} is not a valid normalization variant", caller
  end.pack('U*')
end
pack_graphemes(unpacked)

Reverse operation of unpack_graphemes.

Unicode.pack_graphemes(Unicode.unpack_graphemes('क्षि')) # => 'क्षि'
# File activesupport/lib/active_support/multibyte/unicode.rb, line 114
def pack_graphemes(unpacked)
  unpacked.flatten.pack('U*')
end
reorder_characters(codepoints)

Re-order codepoints so the string becomes canonical.

# File activesupport/lib/active_support/multibyte/unicode.rb, line 119
def reorder_characters(codepoints)
  length = codepoints.length- 1
  pos = 0
  while pos < length do
    cp1, cp2 = database.codepoints[codepoints[pos]], database.codepoints[codepoints[pos+1]]
    if (cp1.combining_class > cp2.combining_class) && (cp2.combining_class > 0)
      codepoints[pos..pos+1] = cp2.code, cp1.code
      pos += (pos > 0 ? -1 : 1)
    else
      pos += 1
    end
  end
  codepoints
end
swapcase(string)
# File activesupport/lib/active_support/multibyte/unicode.rb, line 287
def swapcase(string)
  apply_mapping string, :swapcase_mapping
end
tidy_bytes(string, force = false)

Replaces all ISO-8859-1 or CP1252 characters by their UTF-8 equivalent resulting in a valid UTF-8 string.

Passing true will forcibly tidy all bytes, assuming that the string's encoding is entirely CP1252 or ISO-8859-1.

# File activesupport/lib/active_support/multibyte/unicode.rb, line 221
def tidy_bytes(string, force = false)
  return string if string.empty?
  return recode_windows1252_chars(string) if force
  string.scrub { |bad| recode_windows1252_chars(bad) }
end
unpack_graphemes(string)

Unpack the string at grapheme boundaries. Returns a list of character lists.

Unicode.unpack_graphemes('क्षि') # => [[2325, 2381], [2359], [2367]]
Unicode.unpack_graphemes('Café') # => [[67], [97], [102], [233]]
# File activesupport/lib/active_support/multibyte/unicode.rb, line 81
def unpack_graphemes(string)
  codepoints = string.codepoints.to_a
  unpacked = []
  pos = 0
  marker = 0
  eoc = codepoints.length
  while(pos < eoc)
    pos += 1
    previous = codepoints[pos-1]
    current = codepoints[pos]
    if (
        # CR X LF
        ( previous == database.boundary[:cr] and current == database.boundary[:lf] ) or
        # L X (L|V|LV|LVT)
        ( database.boundary[:l] === previous and in_char_class?(current, [:l,:v,:lv,:lvt]) ) or
        # (LV|V) X (V|T)
        ( in_char_class?(previous, [:lv,:v]) and in_char_class?(current, [:v,:t]) ) or
        # (LVT|T) X (T)
        ( in_char_class?(previous, [:lvt,:t]) and database.boundary[:t] === current ) or
        # X Extend
        (database.boundary[:extend] === current)
      )
    else
      unpacked << codepoints[marker..pos-1]
      marker = pos
    end
  end
  unpacked
end
upcase(string)
# File activesupport/lib/active_support/multibyte/unicode.rb, line 283
def upcase(string)
  apply_mapping string, :uppercase_mapping
end