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Methods
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Constants
COLUMN_NAME_ORDER_WHITELIST = / \A (?:\w+\.)? \w+ (?:\s+asc|\s+desc)? (?:\s+nulls\s+(?:first|last))? \z /ix
 

Regexp whitelist. Matches the following:

"#{table_name}.#{column_name}"
"#{table_name}.#{column_name} #{direction}"
"#{table_name}.#{column_name} #{direction} NULLS FIRST"
"#{table_name}.#{column_name} NULLS LAST"
"#{column_name}"
"#{column_name} #{direction}"
"#{column_name} #{direction} NULLS FIRST"
"#{column_name} NULLS LAST"
COLUMN_NAME_WHITELIST = /\A(?:\w+\.)?\w+\z/i
 

Regexp whitelist. Matches the following:

"#{table_name}.#{column_name}"
"#{column_name}"
Instance Public methods
[](attr_name)

Returns the value of the attribute identified by attr_name after it has been typecast (for example, “2004-12-12” in a date column is cast to a date object, like Date.new(2004, 12, 12)). It raises ActiveModel::MissingAttributeError if the identified attribute is missing.

Note: :id is always present.

class Person < ActiveRecord::Base
  belongs_to :organization
end

person = Person.new(name: 'Francesco', age: '22')
person[:name] # => "Francesco"
person[:age]  # => 22

person = Person.select('id').first
person[:name]            # => ActiveModel::MissingAttributeError: missing attribute: name
person[:organization_id] # => ActiveModel::MissingAttributeError: missing attribute: organization_id
# File activerecord/lib/active_record/attribute_methods.rb, line 395
def [](attr_name)
  read_attribute(attr_name) { |n| missing_attribute(n, caller) }
end
[]=(attr_name, value)

Updates the attribute identified by attr_name with the specified value. (Alias for the protected write_attribute method).

class Person < ActiveRecord::Base
end

person = Person.new
person[:age] = '22'
person[:age] # => 22
person[:age].class # => Integer
# File activerecord/lib/active_record/attribute_methods.rb, line 409
def []=(attr_name, value)
  write_attribute(attr_name, value)
end
accessed_fields()

Returns the name of all database fields which have been read from this model. This can be useful in development mode to determine which fields need to be selected. For performance critical pages, selecting only the required fields can be an easy performance win (assuming you aren't using all of the fields on the model).

For example:

class PostsController < ActionController::Base
  after_action :print_accessed_fields, only: :index

  def index
    @posts = Post.all
  end

  private

  def print_accessed_fields
    p @posts.first.accessed_fields
  end
end

Which allows you to quickly change your code to:

class PostsController < ActionController::Base
  def index
    @posts = Post.select(:id, :title, :author_id, :updated_at)
  end
end
# File activerecord/lib/active_record/attribute_methods.rb, line 442
def accessed_fields
  @attributes.accessed
end
attribute_for_inspect(attr_name)

Returns an #inspect-like string for the value of the attribute attr_name. String attributes are truncated up to 50 characters, Date and Time attributes are returned in the :db format. Other attributes return the value of #inspect without modification.

person = Person.create!(name: 'David Heinemeier Hansson ' * 3)

person.attribute_for_inspect(:name)
# => "\"David Heinemeier Hansson David Heinemeier Hansson ...\""

person.attribute_for_inspect(:created_at)
# => "\"2012-10-22 00:15:07\""

person.attribute_for_inspect(:tag_ids)
# => "[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11]"
# File activerecord/lib/active_record/attribute_methods.rb, line 346
def attribute_for_inspect(attr_name)
  value = read_attribute(attr_name)

  if value.is_a?(String) && value.length > 50
    "#{value[0, 50]}...".inspect
  elsif value.is_a?(Date) || value.is_a?(Time)
    %("#{value.to_s(:db)}")
  else
    value.inspect
  end
end
attribute_method?(attribute)

Returns true if attribute is an attribute method and table exists, false otherwise.

class Person < ActiveRecord::Base
end

Person.attribute_method?('name')   # => true
Person.attribute_method?(:age=)    # => true
Person.attribute_method?(:nothing) # => false
# File activerecord/lib/active_record/attribute_methods.rb, line 150
def attribute_method?(attribute)
  super || (table_exists? && column_names.include?(attribute.to_s.sub(/=$/, "")))
end
attribute_names()

Returns an array of column names as strings if it's not an abstract class and table exists. Otherwise it returns an empty array.

class Person < ActiveRecord::Base
end

Person.attribute_names
# => ["id", "created_at", "updated_at", "name", "age"]
# File activerecord/lib/active_record/attribute_methods.rb, line 162
def attribute_names
  @attribute_names ||= if !abstract_class? && table_exists?
    attribute_types.keys
  else
    []
  end
end
attribute_present?(attribute)

Returns true if the specified attribute has been set by the user or by a database load and is neither nil nor empty? (the latter only applies to objects that respond to empty?, most notably Strings). Otherwise, false. Note that it always returns true with boolean attributes.

class Task < ActiveRecord::Base
end

task = Task.new(title: '', is_done: false)
task.attribute_present?(:title)   # => false
task.attribute_present?(:is_done) # => true
task.title = 'Buy milk'
task.is_done = true
task.attribute_present?(:title)   # => true
task.attribute_present?(:is_done) # => true
# File activerecord/lib/active_record/attribute_methods.rb, line 373
def attribute_present?(attribute)
  value = _read_attribute(attribute)
  !value.nil? && !(value.respond_to?(:empty?) && value.empty?)
end
attributes()

Returns a hash of all the attributes with their names as keys and the values of the attributes as values.

class Person < ActiveRecord::Base
end

person = Person.create(name: 'Francesco', age: 22)
person.attributes
# => {"id"=>3, "created_at"=>Sun, 21 Oct 2012 04:53:04, "updated_at"=>Sun, 21 Oct 2012 04:53:04, "name"=>"Francesco", "age"=>22}
# File activerecord/lib/active_record/attribute_methods.rb, line 326
def attributes
  @attributes.to_hash
end
column_for_attribute(name)

Returns the column object for the named attribute. Returns a ActiveRecord::ConnectionAdapters::NullColumn if the named attribute does not exist.

class Person < ActiveRecord::Base
end

person = Person.new
person.column_for_attribute(:name) # the result depends on the ConnectionAdapter
# => #<ActiveRecord::ConnectionAdapters::Column:0x007ff4ab083980 @name="name", @sql_type="varchar(255)", @null=true, ...>

person.column_for_attribute(:nothing)
# => #<ActiveRecord::ConnectionAdapters::NullColumn:0xXXX @name=nil, @sql_type=nil, @cast_type=#<Type::Value>, ...>
# File activerecord/lib/active_record/attribute_methods.rb, line 246
def column_for_attribute(name)
  name = name.to_s
  columns_hash.fetch(name) do
    ConnectionAdapters::NullColumn.new(name)
  end
end
dangerous_class_method?(method_name)

A class method is 'dangerous' if it is already (re)defined by Active Record, but not by any ancestors. (So 'puts' is not dangerous but 'new' is.)

# File activerecord/lib/active_record/attribute_methods.rb, line 125
def dangerous_class_method?(method_name)
  BLACKLISTED_CLASS_METHODS.include?(method_name.to_s) || class_method_defined_within?(method_name, Base)
end
has_attribute?(attr_name)

Returns true if the given attribute exists, otherwise false.

class Person < ActiveRecord::Base
end

Person.has_attribute?('name')   # => true
Person.has_attribute?(:age)     # => true
Person.has_attribute?(:nothing) # => false
# File activerecord/lib/active_record/attribute_methods.rb, line 229
def has_attribute?(attr_name)
  attribute_types.key?(attr_name.to_s)
end
instance_method_already_implemented?(method_name)

Raises an ActiveRecord::DangerousAttributeError exception when an Active Record method is defined in the model, otherwise false.

class Person < ActiveRecord::Base
  def save
    'already defined by Active Record'
  end
end

Person.instance_method_already_implemented?(:save)
# => ActiveRecord::DangerousAttributeError: save is defined by Active Record. Check to make sure that you don't have an attribute or method with the same name.

Person.instance_method_already_implemented?(:name)
# => false
# File activerecord/lib/active_record/attribute_methods.rb, line 89
def instance_method_already_implemented?(method_name)
  if dangerous_attribute_method?(method_name)
    raise DangerousAttributeError, "#{method_name} is defined by Active Record. Check to make sure that you don't have an attribute or method with the same name."
  end

  if superclass == Base
    super
  else
    # If ThisClass < ... < SomeSuperClass < ... < Base and SomeSuperClass
    # defines its own attribute method, then we don't want to overwrite that.
    defined = method_defined_within?(method_name, superclass, Base) &&
      ! superclass.instance_method(method_name).owner.is_a?(GeneratedAttributeMethods)
    defined || super
  end
end
respond_to?(name, include_private = false)

A Person object with a name attribute can ask person.respond_to?(:name), person.respond_to?(:name=), and person.respond_to?(:name?) which will all return true. It also defines the attribute methods if they have not been generated.

class Person < ActiveRecord::Base
end

person = Person.new
person.respond_to?(:name)    # => true
person.respond_to?(:name=)   # => true
person.respond_to?(:name?)   # => true
person.respond_to?('age')    # => true
person.respond_to?('age=')   # => true
person.respond_to?('age?')   # => true
person.respond_to?(:nothing) # => false
# File activerecord/lib/active_record/attribute_methods.rb, line 270
def respond_to?(name, include_private = false)
  return false unless super

  case name
  when :to_partial_path
    name = "to_partial_path".freeze
  when :to_model
    name = "to_model".freeze
  else
    name = name.to_s
  end

  # If the result is true then check for the select case.
  # For queries selecting a subset of columns, return false for unselected columns.
  # We check defined?(@attributes) not to issue warnings if called on objects that
  # have been allocated but not yet initialized.
  if defined?(@attributes) && self.class.column_names.include?(name)
    return has_attribute?(name)
  end

  true
end