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A Time-like class that can represent a time in any time zone. Necessary because standard Ruby Time instances are limited to UTC and the system’s ENV['TZ'] zone.

You shouldn’t ever need to create a TimeWithZone instance directly via new. Instead use methods local, parse, at, and now on TimeZone instances, and in_time_zone on Time and DateTime instances.

Time.zone = 'Eastern Time (US & Canada)'        # => 'Eastern Time (US & Canada)'
Time.zone.local(2007, 2, 10, 15, 30, 45)        # => Sat, 10 Feb 2007 15:30:45.000000000 EST -05:00
Time.zone.parse('2007-02-10 15:30:45')          # => Sat, 10 Feb 2007 15:30:45.000000000 EST -05:00
Time.zone.at(1171139445)                        # => Sat, 10 Feb 2007 15:30:45.000000000 EST -05:00
Time.zone.now                                   # => Sun, 18 May 2008 13:07:55.754107581 EDT -04:00
Time.utc(2007, 2, 10, 20, 30, 45).in_time_zone  # => Sat, 10 Feb 2007 15:30:45.000000000 EST -05:00

See Time and TimeZone for further documentation of these methods.

TimeWithZone instances implement the same API as Ruby Time instances, so that Time and TimeWithZone instances are interchangeable.

t = Time.zone.now                     # => Sun, 18 May 2008 13:27:25.031505668 EDT -04:00
t.hour                                # => 13
t.dst?                                # => true
t.utc_offset                          # => -14400
t.zone                                # => "EDT"
t.to_fs(:rfc822)                      # => "Sun, 18 May 2008 13:27:25 -0400"
t + 1.day                             # => Mon, 19 May 2008 13:27:25.031505668 EDT -04:00
t.beginning_of_year                   # => Tue, 01 Jan 2008 00:00:00.000000000 EST -05:00
t > Time.utc(1999)                    # => true
t.is_a?(Time)                         # => true
t.is_a?(ActiveSupport::TimeWithZone)  # => true
Methods
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Constants

PRECISIONS = Hash.new { |h, n| h[n] = "%FT%T.%#{n}N" }
 
SECONDS_PER_DAY = 86400
 

Attributes

[R] time_zone

Class Public methods

name()

Report class name as ‘Time’ to thwart type checking.

# File activesupport/lib/active_support/time_with_zone.rb, line 44
    def self.name
      ActiveSupport.deprecator.warn(<<~EOM)
        ActiveSupport::TimeWithZone.name has been deprecated and
        from Rails 7.1 will use the default Ruby implementation.
        You can set `config.active_support.remove_deprecated_time_with_zone_name = true`
        to enable the new behavior now.
      EOM

      "Time"
    end

new(utc_time, time_zone, local_time = nil, period = nil)

# File activesupport/lib/active_support/time_with_zone.rb, line 61
def initialize(utc_time, time_zone, local_time = nil, period = nil)
  @utc = utc_time ? transfer_time_values_to_utc_constructor(utc_time) : nil
  @time_zone, @time = time_zone, local_time
  @period = @utc ? period : get_period_and_ensure_valid_local_time(period)
end

Instance Public methods

+(other)

Adds an interval of time to the current object’s time and returns that value as a new TimeWithZone object.

Time.zone = 'Eastern Time (US & Canada)' # => 'Eastern Time (US & Canada)'
now = Time.zone.now # => Sun, 02 Nov 2014 01:26:28.725182881 EDT -04:00
now + 1000          # => Sun, 02 Nov 2014 01:43:08.725182881 EDT -04:00

If we’re adding a Duration of variable length (i.e., years, months, days), move forward from time, otherwise move forward from utc, for accuracy when moving across DST boundaries.

For instance, a time + 24.hours will advance exactly 24 hours, while a time + 1.day will advance 23-25 hours, depending on the day.

now + 24.hours      # => Mon, 03 Nov 2014 00:26:28.725182881 EST -05:00
now + 1.day         # => Mon, 03 Nov 2014 01:26:28.725182881 EST -05:00
Also aliased as: since, in
# File activesupport/lib/active_support/time_with_zone.rb, line 328
def +(other)
  if duration_of_variable_length?(other)
    method_missing(:+, other)
  else
    result = utc.acts_like?(:date) ? utc.since(other) : utc + other rescue utc.since(other)
    result.in_time_zone(time_zone)
  end
end

-(other)

Subtracts an interval of time and returns a new TimeWithZone object unless the other value acts_like? time. In which case, it will subtract the other time and return the difference in seconds as a Float.

Time.zone = 'Eastern Time (US & Canada)' # => 'Eastern Time (US & Canada)'
now = Time.zone.now # => Mon, 03 Nov 2014 00:26:28.725182881 EST -05:00
now - 1000          # => Mon, 03 Nov 2014 00:09:48.725182881 EST -05:00

If subtracting a Duration of variable length (i.e., years, months, days), move backward from time, otherwise move backward from utc, for accuracy when moving across DST boundaries.

For instance, a time - 24.hours will go subtract exactly 24 hours, while a time - 1.day will subtract 23-25 hours, depending on the day.

now - 24.hours      # => Sun, 02 Nov 2014 01:26:28.725182881 EDT -04:00
now - 1.day         # => Sun, 02 Nov 2014 00:26:28.725182881 EDT -04:00

If both the TimeWithZone object and the other value act like Time, a Float will be returned.

Time.zone.now - 1.day.ago # => 86399.999967
# File activesupport/lib/active_support/time_with_zone.rb, line 362
def -(other)
  if other.acts_like?(:time)
    to_time - other.to_time
  elsif duration_of_variable_length?(other)
    method_missing(:-, other)
  else
    result = utc.acts_like?(:date) ? utc.ago(other) : utc - other rescue utc.ago(other)
    result.in_time_zone(time_zone)
  end
end

<=>(other)

Use the time in UTC for comparisons.

# File activesupport/lib/active_support/time_with_zone.rb, line 261
def <=>(other)
  utc <=> other
end

acts_like_time?()

So that self acts_like?(:time).

# File activesupport/lib/active_support/time_with_zone.rb, line 523
def acts_like_time?
  true
end

advance(options)

Uses Date to provide precise Time calculations for years, months, and days according to the proleptic Gregorian calendar. The result is returned as a new TimeWithZone object.

The options parameter takes a hash with any of these keys: :years, :months, :weeks, :days, :hours, :minutes, :seconds.

If advancing by a value of variable length (i.e., years, weeks, months, days), move forward from time, otherwise move forward from utc, for accuracy when moving across DST boundaries.

Time.zone = 'Eastern Time (US & Canada)' # => 'Eastern Time (US & Canada)'
now = Time.zone.now # => Sun, 02 Nov 2014 01:26:28.558049687 EDT -04:00
now.advance(seconds: 1) # => Sun, 02 Nov 2014 01:26:29.558049687 EDT -04:00
now.advance(minutes: 1) # => Sun, 02 Nov 2014 01:27:28.558049687 EDT -04:00
now.advance(hours: 1)   # => Sun, 02 Nov 2014 01:26:28.558049687 EST -05:00
now.advance(days: 1)    # => Mon, 03 Nov 2014 01:26:28.558049687 EST -05:00
now.advance(weeks: 1)   # => Sun, 09 Nov 2014 01:26:28.558049687 EST -05:00
now.advance(months: 1)  # => Tue, 02 Dec 2014 01:26:28.558049687 EST -05:00
now.advance(years: 1)   # => Mon, 02 Nov 2015 01:26:28.558049687 EST -05:00
# File activesupport/lib/active_support/time_with_zone.rb, line 451
def advance(options)
  # If we're advancing a value of variable length (i.e., years, weeks, months, days), advance from #time,
  # otherwise advance from #utc, for accuracy when moving across DST boundaries
  if options.values_at(:years, :weeks, :months, :days).any?
    method_missing(:advance, options)
  else
    utc.advance(options).in_time_zone(time_zone)
  end
end

ago(other)

Subtracts an interval of time from the current object’s time and returns the result as a new TimeWithZone object.

Time.zone = 'Eastern Time (US & Canada)' # => 'Eastern Time (US & Canada)'
now = Time.zone.now # => Mon, 03 Nov 2014 00:26:28.725182881 EST -05:00
now.ago(1000)       # => Mon, 03 Nov 2014 00:09:48.725182881 EST -05:00

If we’re subtracting a Duration of variable length (i.e., years, months, days), move backward from time, otherwise move backward from utc, for accuracy when moving across DST boundaries.

For instance, time.ago(24.hours) will move back exactly 24 hours, while time.ago(1.day) will move back 23-25 hours, depending on the day.

now.ago(24.hours)   # => Sun, 02 Nov 2014 01:26:28.725182881 EDT -04:00
now.ago(1.day)      # => Sun, 02 Nov 2014 00:26:28.725182881 EDT -04:00
# File activesupport/lib/active_support/time_with_zone.rb, line 390
def ago(other)
  since(-other)
end

as_json(options = nil)

Coerces time to a string for JSON encoding. The default format is ISO 8601. You can get %Y/%m/%d %H:%M:%S +offset style by setting ActiveSupport::JSON::Encoding.use_standard_json_time_format to false.

# With ActiveSupport::JSON::Encoding.use_standard_json_time_format = true
Time.utc(2005,2,1,15,15,10).in_time_zone("Hawaii").to_json
# => "2005-02-01T05:15:10.000-10:00"

# With ActiveSupport::JSON::Encoding.use_standard_json_time_format = false
Time.utc(2005,2,1,15,15,10).in_time_zone("Hawaii").to_json
# => "2005/02/01 05:15:10 -1000"
# File activesupport/lib/active_support/time_with_zone.rb, line 176
def as_json(options = nil)
  if ActiveSupport::JSON::Encoding.use_standard_json_time_format
    xmlschema(ActiveSupport::JSON::Encoding.time_precision)
  else
    %(#{time.strftime("%Y/%m/%d %H:%M:%S")} #{formatted_offset(false)})
  end
end

between?(min, max)

Returns true if the current object’s time is within the specified min and max time.

# File activesupport/lib/active_support/time_with_zone.rb, line 269
def between?(min, max)
  utc.between?(min, max)
end

blank?()

An instance of ActiveSupport::TimeWithZone is never blank

# File activesupport/lib/active_support/time_with_zone.rb, line 534
def blank?
  false
end

change(options)

Returns a new ActiveSupport::TimeWithZone where one or more of the elements have been changed according to the options parameter. The time options (:hour, :min, :sec, :usec, :nsec) reset cascadingly, so if only the hour is passed, then minute, sec, usec, and nsec is set to 0. If the hour and minute is passed, then sec, usec, and nsec is set to 0. The options parameter takes a hash with any of these keys: :year, :month, :day, :hour, :min, :sec, :usec, :nsec, :offset, :zone. Pass either :usec or :nsec, not both. Similarly, pass either :zone or :offset, not both.

t = Time.zone.now          # => Fri, 14 Apr 2017 11:45:15.116992711 EST -05:00
t.change(year: 2020)       # => Tue, 14 Apr 2020 11:45:15.116992711 EST -05:00
t.change(hour: 12)         # => Fri, 14 Apr 2017 12:00:00.116992711 EST -05:00
t.change(min: 30)          # => Fri, 14 Apr 2017 11:30:00.116992711 EST -05:00
t.change(offset: "-10:00") # => Fri, 14 Apr 2017 11:45:15.116992711 HST -10:00
t.change(zone: "Hawaii")   # => Fri, 14 Apr 2017 11:45:15.116992711 HST -10:00
# File activesupport/lib/active_support/time_with_zone.rb, line 411
def change(options)
  if options[:zone] && options[:offset]
    raise ArgumentError, "Can't change both :offset and :zone at the same time: #{options.inspect}"
  end

  new_time = time.change(options)

  if options[:zone]
    new_zone = ::Time.find_zone(options[:zone])
  elsif options[:offset]
    new_zone = ::Time.find_zone(new_time.utc_offset)
  end

  new_zone ||= time_zone
  periods = new_zone.periods_for_local(new_time)

  self.class.new(nil, new_zone, new_time, periods.include?(period) ? period : nil)
end

comparable_time()

Alias for: utc

dst?()

Returns true if the current time is within Daylight Savings Time for the specified time zone.

Time.zone = 'Eastern Time (US & Canada)'    # => 'Eastern Time (US & Canada)'
Time.zone.parse("2012-5-30").dst?           # => true
Time.zone.parse("2012-11-30").dst?          # => false
Also aliased as: isdst
# File activesupport/lib/active_support/time_with_zone.rb, line 104
def dst?
  period.dst?
end

eql?(other)

Returns true if other is equal to current object.

# File activesupport/lib/active_support/time_with_zone.rb, line 304
def eql?(other)
  other.eql?(utc)
end

formatted_offset(colon = true, alternate_utc_string = nil)

Returns a formatted string of the offset from UTC, or an alternative string if the time zone is already UTC.

Time.zone = 'Eastern Time (US & Canada)'   # => "Eastern Time (US & Canada)"
Time.zone.now.formatted_offset(true)       # => "-05:00"
Time.zone.now.formatted_offset(false)      # => "-0500"
Time.zone = 'UTC'                          # => "UTC"
Time.zone.now.formatted_offset(true, "0")  # => "0"
# File activesupport/lib/active_support/time_with_zone.rb, line 135
def formatted_offset(colon = true, alternate_utc_string = nil)
  utc? && alternate_utc_string || TimeZone.seconds_to_utc_offset(utc_offset, colon)
end

freeze()

# File activesupport/lib/active_support/time_with_zone.rb, line 538
def freeze
  # preload instance variables before freezing
  period; utc; time; to_datetime; to_time
  super
end

future?()

Returns true if the current object’s time is in the future.

# File activesupport/lib/active_support/time_with_zone.rb, line 299
def future?
  utc.future?
end

getgm()

Alias for: utc

getlocal(utc_offset = nil)

Alias for: localtime

getutc()

Alias for: utc

gmt?()

Alias for: utc?

gmt_offset()

Alias for: utc_offset

gmtime()

Alias for: utc

gmtoff()

Alias for: utc_offset

hash()

# File activesupport/lib/active_support/time_with_zone.rb, line 308
def hash
  utc.hash
end

httpdate()

Returns a string of the object’s date and time in the format used by HTTP requests.

Time.zone.now.httpdate  # => "Tue, 01 Jan 2013 04:39:43 GMT"
# File activesupport/lib/active_support/time_with_zone.rb, line 196
def httpdate
  utc.httpdate
end

in(other)

Alias for: +

in_time_zone(new_zone = ::Time.zone)

Returns the simultaneous time in Time.zone, or the specified zone.

# File activesupport/lib/active_support/time_with_zone.rb, line 87
def in_time_zone(new_zone = ::Time.zone)
  return self if time_zone == new_zone
  utc.in_time_zone(new_zone)
end

inspect()

Returns a string of the object’s date, time, zone, and offset from UTC.

Time.zone.now.inspect # => "Thu, 04 Dec 2014 11:00:25.624541392 EST -05:00"
# File activesupport/lib/active_support/time_with_zone.rb, line 150
def inspect
  "#{time.strftime('%a, %d %b %Y %H:%M:%S.%9N')} #{zone} #{formatted_offset}"
end

is_a?(klass)

Say we’re a Time to thwart type checking.

Also aliased as: kind_of?
# File activesupport/lib/active_support/time_with_zone.rb, line 528
def is_a?(klass)
  klass == ::Time || super
end

isdst()

Alias for: dst?

iso8601(fraction_digits = 0)

Alias for: xmlschema

kind_of?(klass)

Alias for: is_a?

localtime(utc_offset = nil)

Returns a Time instance of the simultaneous time in the system timezone.

Also aliased as: getlocal
# File activesupport/lib/active_support/time_with_zone.rb, line 93
def localtime(utc_offset = nil)
  utc.getlocal(utc_offset)
end

marshal_dump()

# File activesupport/lib/active_support/time_with_zone.rb, line 544
def marshal_dump
  [utc, time_zone.name, time]
end

marshal_load(variables)

# File activesupport/lib/active_support/time_with_zone.rb, line 548
def marshal_load(variables)
  initialize(variables[0].utc, ::Time.find_zone(variables[1]), variables[2].utc)
end

method_missing(sym, *args, &block)

Send the missing method to time instance, and wrap result in a new TimeWithZone with the existing time_zone.

# File activesupport/lib/active_support/time_with_zone.rb, line 569
def method_missing(sym, *args, &block)
  wrap_with_time_zone time.__send__(sym, *args, &block)
rescue NoMethodError => e
  raise e, e.message.sub(time.inspect, inspect).sub("Time", "ActiveSupport::TimeWithZone"), e.backtrace
end

next_day?()

Alias for: tomorrow?

past?()

Returns true if the current object’s time is in the past.

# File activesupport/lib/active_support/time_with_zone.rb, line 274
def past?
  utc.past?
end

period()

Returns the underlying TZInfo::TimezonePeriod.

# File activesupport/lib/active_support/time_with_zone.rb, line 82
def period
  @period ||= time_zone.period_for_utc(@utc)
end

prev_day?()

Alias for: yesterday?

respond_to?(sym, include_priv = false)

respond_to_missing? is not called in some cases, such as when type conversion is performed with Kernel#String

# File activesupport/lib/active_support/time_with_zone.rb, line 554
def respond_to?(sym, include_priv = false)
  # ensure that we're not going to throw and rescue from NoMethodError in method_missing which is slow
  return false if sym.to_sym == :to_str
  super
end

respond_to_missing?(sym, include_priv)

Ensure proxy class responds to all methods that underlying time instance responds to.

# File activesupport/lib/active_support/time_with_zone.rb, line 562
def respond_to_missing?(sym, include_priv)
  return false if sym.to_sym == :acts_like_date?
  time.respond_to?(sym, include_priv)
end

rfc2822()

Returns a string of the object’s date and time in the RFC 2822 standard format.

Time.zone.now.rfc2822  # => "Tue, 01 Jan 2013 04:51:39 +0000"
Also aliased as: rfc822
# File activesupport/lib/active_support/time_with_zone.rb, line 204
def rfc2822
  to_fs(:rfc822)
end

rfc3339(fraction_digits = 0)

Alias for: xmlschema

rfc822()

Alias for: rfc2822

since(other)

Alias for: +

strftime(format)

Replaces %Z directive with +zone before passing to Time#strftime, so that zone information is correct.

# File activesupport/lib/active_support/time_with_zone.rb, line 255
def strftime(format)
  format = format.gsub(/((?:\A|[^%])(?:%%)*)%Z/, "\\1#{zone}")
  getlocal(utc_offset).strftime(format)
end

time()

Returns a Time instance that represents the time in time_zone.

# File activesupport/lib/active_support/time_with_zone.rb, line 68
def time
  @time ||= incorporate_utc_offset(@utc, utc_offset)
end

to_a()

Returns Array of parts of Time in sequence of [seconds, minutes, hours, day, month, year, weekday, yearday, dst?, zone].

now = Time.zone.now     # => Tue, 18 Aug 2015 02:29:27.485278555 UTC +00:00
now.to_a                # => [27, 29, 2, 18, 8, 2015, 2, 230, false, "UTC"]
# File activesupport/lib/active_support/time_with_zone.rb, line 474
def to_a
  [time.sec, time.min, time.hour, time.day, time.mon, time.year, time.wday, time.yday, dst?, zone]
end

to_datetime()

Returns an instance of DateTime with the timezone’s UTC offset

Time.zone.now.to_datetime                         # => Tue, 18 Aug 2015 02:32:20 +0000
Time.current.in_time_zone('Hawaii').to_datetime   # => Mon, 17 Aug 2015 16:32:20 -1000
# File activesupport/lib/active_support/time_with_zone.rb, line 507
def to_datetime
  @to_datetime ||= utc.to_datetime.new_offset(Rational(utc_offset, 86_400))
end

to_f()

Returns the object’s date and time as a floating-point number of seconds since the Epoch (January 1, 1970 00:00 UTC).

Time.zone.now.to_f # => 1417709320.285418
# File activesupport/lib/active_support/time_with_zone.rb, line 482
def to_f
  utc.to_f
end

to_formatted_s(format = :default)

Alias for: to_fs

to_fs(format = :default)

Returns a string of the object’s date and time.

This method is aliased to to_formatted_s.

Accepts an optional format:

  • :default - default value, mimics Ruby Time#to_s format.

  • :db - format outputs time in UTC :db time. See Time#to_fs(:db).

  • Any key in Time::DATE_FORMATS can be used. See active_support/core_ext/time/conversions.rb.

Also aliased as: to_formatted_s
# File activesupport/lib/active_support/time_with_zone.rb, line 241
def to_fs(format = :default)
  if format == :db
    utc.to_fs(format)
  elsif formatter = ::Time::DATE_FORMATS[format]
    formatter.respond_to?(:call) ? formatter.call(self).to_s : strftime(formatter)
  else
    # Change to to_s when deprecation is gone.
    "#{time.strftime("%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S")} #{formatted_offset(false, 'UTC')}"
  end
end

to_i()

Returns the object’s date and time as an integer number of seconds since the Epoch (January 1, 1970 00:00 UTC).

Time.zone.now.to_i # => 1417709320
Also aliased as: tv_sec
# File activesupport/lib/active_support/time_with_zone.rb, line 490
def to_i
  utc.to_i
end

to_r()

Returns the object’s date and time as a rational number of seconds since the Epoch (January 1, 1970 00:00 UTC).

Time.zone.now.to_r # => (708854548642709/500000)
# File activesupport/lib/active_support/time_with_zone.rb, line 499
def to_r
  utc.to_r
end

to_s(format = NOT_SET)

Returns a string of the object’s date and time.

# File activesupport/lib/active_support/time_with_zone.rb, line 212
def to_s(format = NOT_SET)
  if format == :db
    ActiveSupport.deprecator.warn(
      "TimeWithZone#to_s(:db) is deprecated. Please use TimeWithZone#to_fs(:db) instead."
    )
    utc.to_fs(format)
  elsif formatter = ::Time::DATE_FORMATS[format]
    ActiveSupport.deprecator.warn(
      "TimeWithZone#to_s(#{format.inspect}) is deprecated. Please use TimeWithZone#to_fs(#{format.inspect}) instead."
    )
    formatter.respond_to?(:call) ? formatter.call(self).to_s : strftime(formatter)
  elsif format == NOT_SET
    "#{time.strftime("%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S")} #{formatted_offset(false, 'UTC')}" # mimicking Ruby Time#to_s format
  else
    ActiveSupport.deprecator.warn(
      "TimeWithZone#to_s(#{format.inspect}) is deprecated. Please use TimeWithZone#to_fs(#{format.inspect}) instead."
    )
    "#{time.strftime("%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S")} #{formatted_offset(false, 'UTC')}" # mimicking Ruby Time#to_s format
  end
end

to_time()

Returns an instance of Time, either with the same UTC offset as self or in the local system timezone depending on the setting of ActiveSupport.to_time_preserves_timezone.

# File activesupport/lib/active_support/time_with_zone.rb, line 514
def to_time
  if preserve_timezone
    @to_time_with_instance_offset ||= getlocal(utc_offset)
  else
    @to_time_with_system_offset ||= getlocal
  end
end

today?()

Returns true if the current object’s time falls within the current day.

# File activesupport/lib/active_support/time_with_zone.rb, line 280
def today?
  time.today?
end

tomorrow?()

Returns true if the current object’s time falls within the next day (tomorrow).

Also aliased as: next_day?
# File activesupport/lib/active_support/time_with_zone.rb, line 286
def tomorrow?
  time.tomorrow?
end

tv_sec()

Alias for: to_i

utc()

Returns a Time instance of the simultaneous time in the UTC timezone.

Also aliased as: comparable_time, getgm, getutc, gmtime
# File activesupport/lib/active_support/time_with_zone.rb, line 73
def utc
  @utc ||= incorporate_utc_offset(@time, -utc_offset)
end

utc?()

Returns true if the current time zone is set to UTC.

Time.zone = 'UTC'                           # => 'UTC'
Time.zone.now.utc?                          # => true
Time.zone = 'Eastern Time (US & Canada)'    # => 'Eastern Time (US & Canada)'
Time.zone.now.utc?                          # => false
Also aliased as: gmt?
# File activesupport/lib/active_support/time_with_zone.rb, line 115
def utc?
  zone == "UTC" || zone == "UCT"
end

utc_offset()

Returns the offset from current time to UTC time in seconds.

Also aliased as: gmt_offset, gmtoff
# File activesupport/lib/active_support/time_with_zone.rb, line 121
def utc_offset
  period.observed_utc_offset
end

xmlschema(fraction_digits = 0)

Returns a string of the object’s date and time in the ISO 8601 standard format.

Time.zone.now.xmlschema  # => "2014-12-04T11:02:37-05:00"
Also aliased as: iso8601, rfc3339
# File activesupport/lib/active_support/time_with_zone.rb, line 158
def xmlschema(fraction_digits = 0)
  "#{time.strftime(PRECISIONS[fraction_digits.to_i])}#{formatted_offset(true, 'Z')}"
end

yesterday?()

Returns true if the current object’s time falls within the previous day (yesterday).

Also aliased as: prev_day?
# File activesupport/lib/active_support/time_with_zone.rb, line 293
def yesterday?
  time.yesterday?
end

zone()

Returns the time zone abbreviation.

Time.zone = 'Eastern Time (US & Canada)'   # => "Eastern Time (US & Canada)"
Time.zone.now.zone # => "EST"
# File activesupport/lib/active_support/time_with_zone.rb, line 143
def zone
  period.abbreviation
end