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Instance Public methods
find_each(begin_at: nil, end_at: nil, batch_size: 1000, start: nil)

Looping through a collection of records from the database (using the all method, for example) is very inefficient since it will try to instantiate all the objects at once.

In that case, batch processing methods allow you to work with the records in batches, thereby greatly reducing memory consumption.

The find_each method uses find_in_batches with a batch size of 1000 (or as specified by the :batch_size option).

Person.find_each do |person|
  person.do_awesome_stuff
end

Person.where("age > 21").find_each do |person|
  person.party_all_night!
end

If you do not provide a block to find_each, it will return an Enumerator for chaining with other methods:

Person.find_each.with_index do |person, index|
  person.award_trophy(index + 1)
end

Options

  • :batch_size - Specifies the size of the batch. Default to 1000.

  • :begin_at - Specifies the primary key value to start from, inclusive of the value.

  • :end_at - Specifies the primary key value to end at, inclusive of the value.

This is especially useful if you want multiple workers dealing with the same processing queue. You can make worker 1 handle all the records between id 0 and 10,000 and worker 2 handle from 10,000 and beyond (by setting the :begin_at and :end_at option on each worker).

# Let's process for a batch of 2000 records, skipping the first 2000 rows
Person.find_each(begin_at: 2000, batch_size: 2000) do |person|
  person.party_all_night!
end

NOTE: It's not possible to set the order. That is automatically set to ascending on the primary key (“id ASC”) to make the batch ordering work. This also means that this method only works when the primary key is orderable (e.g. an integer or string).

NOTE: You can't set the limit either, that's used to control the batch sizes.

# File activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/batches.rb, line 51
    def find_each(begin_at: nil, end_at: nil, batch_size: 1000, start: nil)
      if start
        begin_at = start
        ActiveSupport::Deprecation.warn("            Passing `start` value to find_each is deprecated, and will be removed in Rails 5.1.
            Please pass `begin_at` instead.
".squish)
      end
      if block_given?
        find_in_batches(begin_at: begin_at, end_at: end_at, batch_size: batch_size) do |records|
          records.each { |record| yield record }
        end
      else
        enum_for(:find_each, begin_at: begin_at, end_at: end_at, batch_size: batch_size) do
          relation = self
          apply_limits(relation, begin_at, end_at).size
        end
      end
    end
find_in_batches(begin_at: nil, end_at: nil, batch_size: 1000, start: nil)

Yields each batch of records that was found by the find options as an array.

Person.where("age > 21").find_in_batches do |group|
  sleep(50) # Make sure it doesn't get too crowded in there!
  group.each { |person| person.party_all_night! }
end

If you do not provide a block to find_in_batches, it will return an Enumerator for chaining with other methods:

Person.find_in_batches.with_index do |group, batch|
  puts "Processing group ##{batch}"
  group.each(&:recover_from_last_night!)
end

To be yielded each record one by one, use find_each instead.

Options

  • :batch_size - Specifies the size of the batch. Default to 1000.

  • :begin_at - Specifies the primary key value to start from, inclusive of the value.

  • :end_at - Specifies the primary key value to end at, inclusive of the value.

This is especially useful if you want multiple workers dealing with the same processing queue. You can make worker 1 handle all the records between id 0 and 10,000 and worker 2 handle from 10,000 and beyond (by setting the :begin_at and :end_at option on each worker).

# Let's process the next 2000 records
Person.find_in_batches(begin_at: 2000, batch_size: 2000) do |group|
  group.each { |person| person.party_all_night! }
end

NOTE: It's not possible to set the order. That is automatically set to ascending on the primary key (“id ASC”) to make the batch ordering work. This also means that this method only works when the primary key is orderable (e.g. an integer or string).

NOTE: You can't set the limit either, that's used to control the batch sizes.

# File activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/batches.rb, line 110
    def find_in_batches(begin_at: nil, end_at: nil, batch_size: 1000, start: nil)
      if start
        begin_at = start
        ActiveSupport::Deprecation.warn("            Passing `start` value to find_in_batches is deprecated, and will be removed in Rails 5.1.
            Please pass `begin_at` instead.
".squish)
      end

      relation = self
      unless block_given?
        return to_enum(:find_in_batches, begin_at: begin_at, end_at: end_at, batch_size: batch_size) do
          total = apply_limits(relation, begin_at, end_at).size
          (total - 1).div(batch_size) + 1
        end
      end

      in_batches(of: batch_size, begin_at: begin_at, end_at: end_at, load: true) do |batch|
        yield batch.to_a
      end
    end
in_batches(of: 1000, begin_at: nil, end_at: nil, load: false)

Yields ActiveRecord::Relation objects to work with a batch of records.

Person.where("age > 21").in_batches do |relation|
  relation.delete_all
  sleep(10) # Throttle the delete queries
end

If you do not provide a block to in_batches, it will return a BatchEnumerator which is enumerable.

Person.in_batches.with_index do |relation, batch_index|
  puts "Processing relation ##{batch_index}"
  relation.each { |relation| relation.delete_all }
end

Examples of calling methods on the returned BatchEnumerator object:

Person.in_batches.delete_all
Person.in_batches.update_all(awesome: true)
Person.in_batches.each_record(&:party_all_night!)

Options

  • :of - Specifies the size of the batch. Default to 1000.

  • :load - Specifies if the relation should be loaded. Default to false.

  • :begin_at - Specifies the primary key value to start from, inclusive of the value.

  • :end_at - Specifies the primary key value to end at, inclusive of the value.

This is especially useful if you want to work with the ActiveRecord::Relation object instead of the array of records, or if you want multiple workers dealing with the same processing queue. You can make worker 1 handle all the records between id 0 and 10,000 and worker 2 handle from 10,000 and beyond (by setting the :begin_at and :end_at option on each worker).

# Let's process the next 2000 records
Person.in_batches(of: 2000, begin_at: 2000).update_all(awesome: true)

An example of calling where query method on the relation:

Person.in_batches.each do |relation|
  relation.update_all('age = age + 1')
  relation.where('age > 21').update_all(should_party: true)
  relation.where('age <= 21').delete_all
end

NOTE: If you are going to iterate through each record, you should call each_record on the yielded BatchEnumerator:

Person.in_batches.each_record(&:party_all_night!)

NOTE: It's not possible to set the order. That is automatically set to ascending on the primary key (“id ASC”) to make the batch ordering consistent. Therefore the primary key must be orderable, e.g an integer or a string.

NOTE: You can't set the limit either, that's used to control the batch sizes.

# File activerecord/lib/active_record/relation/batches.rb, line 189
def in_batches(of: 1000, begin_at: nil, end_at: nil, load: false)
  relation = self
  unless block_given?
    return BatchEnumerator.new(of: of, begin_at: begin_at, end_at: end_at, relation: self)
  end

  if logger && (arel.orders.present? || arel.taken.present?)
    logger.warn("Scoped order and limit are ignored, it's forced to be batch order and batch size")
  end

  relation = relation.reorder(batch_order).limit(of)
  relation = apply_limits(relation, begin_at, end_at)
  batch_relation = relation

  loop do
    if load
      records = batch_relation.to_a
      ids = records.map(&:id)
      yielded_relation = self.where(primary_key => ids)
      yielded_relation.load_records(records)
    else
      ids = batch_relation.pluck(primary_key)
      yielded_relation = self.where(primary_key => ids)
    end

    break if ids.empty?

    primary_key_offset = ids.last
    raise ArgumentError.new("Primary key not included in the custom select clause") unless primary_key_offset

    yield yielded_relation

    break if ids.length < of
    batch_relation = relation.where(table[primary_key].gt(primary_key_offset))
  end
end